Insight into the magnitude of forces involved in dogfights during WW2 By 1942 the old WW1 style of dogfighting where one aircraft tries to outturn the other in a prolonged slow speed turn fight was long gone, the speed regimes had moved hugely upward to the point where wing loading no longer was anywhere near being as important a factor as earlier. By 1942 the speeds at which most dogfights were taking place were so high that the lightness harmony of the controls plus the structural integrity of the a/c became the two dominant if not the only factors for achieving success. This is the main reason behind the FW190’s huge success against the Spitfire in the ETO and the F6F F4U Corsair’s against the Zero in the PTO. I have chosen to use the FW190 as an example to demonstrate the forces which a pilot of the type had to endure in the high speed, wild confusing dogfights taking place in the mid to late war period. Lift equation (FW190): CL * A * .5 * r * V^2 = X Newtons 1.58 * 18.3 * .5 * 1.225 * 112^2 = 222152.045 N Convert result in Newtons into kgf: 222152.045 Newtons = 22653.2 kgf Divide result with a/c weight to get Max G: 22653.2 / 4270 = 5.3 Max G at 112 m/s (400 km/h): 5.3 G ________________________________ Using the same equation the Max G at 125 m/s (450 km/h) is 6.6 G, so already at this speed the pilot will be blacking out in a full performance turn. At 500 km/h which would be the average speed in a dogfight in 1944-45 the G-forces in a max performance turn will exceed 8.25 G's! At 650 km/h which would quickly be reached in a dive the G-forces the FW190 is capable of pulling are staggering, a massive 13.8 G’s! This is way beyond even the structural load limit. I hope this gave some insight into why the style of dogfighting evolved as it did and why B&Z tactics became dominant in the mid to late war period. PS: I can add other a/c for comparison reasons by request. All the best!