Ms.406: developed countries: France Name: [reserved] overview: MS.406 fighter is the beginning of the Battle of France, the French Air Force Materiel largest number of fighters, to thousands of aircraft. The aircraft and during the early days of World War II fighter in France, from the 1930s the French Air Force Aviation Technical Services Department "C1 requirements. The early 1930s, the development of the aircraft has entered a new stage, countries combat aircraft began to monoplane, retractable landing gear, all-metal structure direction of development. As traditional aviation country France naturally unwilling to, the 1934 French Air Force Aviation Technical Services Department proposed the development of modern monoplane single-seat fighter requirements, code-named "C1". Requirements in accordance with the C1, Morane · Sauniere confidential state developed a next monoplane fighter: MS.405. The first prototype is heaven on August 8, 1935. Conventional layout of the aircraft, most of the body shell is made &#8203;&#8203;of aluminum alloy, but the rear fuselage still sail Bumeng Pi. Power plant with 860 horsepower Spain - the Swiss (HS) "12Ygrs engine. The aircraft uses a retractable landing gear. Since then, the development work seems to have slowed down. After 17 months, the second prototype before January 20, 1937, before God. Second prototype improved wing design facelift "Spain - of Switzerland" 12Ycrs engine, 900 horsepower, maximum speed of 443 km / h (4000 m height). The Morane Sauniere fighter became French first speed exceeded 400 km / fighter, its outstanding performance is very satisfied with the French military, immediately issued orders for manufacturing 16 pilot production type. The Morane · Sauniere company to improve in the second frame of the trial production, the replacement for the 860 horsepower Spain - Switzerland "12Y31 engine, and reducing the weight of the wing. The improved aircraft named MS.406, heaven on May 20, 1938, the maximum level flight speed of 486 km / (5000 m height), and then become the official production to mass production. MS.406 fighter also began a career in export abroad, the Swiss first expressed a great deal of interest. The two-test the production MS.405 replacement the MS.406 equipped with Spain - Switzerland "12Y31 engine, but the the wing still used MS.405 original design, named modified MS.406H, respectively, in September 1938 and transported to Switzerland in April 1939, and in Switzerland in accordance with the permit generic production, equipment, communications equipment and weapons in accordance with the requirements in Switzerland. Swiss to name the Morane · Sauniere D-3800 fighter aircraft, produced a total of 74. In the late 1930s, and Nazi Germany's war is imminent, the French Air Force issued the command mass production MS.406 of. MS.406 also been identified for the the monoplane fighter jets of the French standard, in fact, become the competition's winner of the "C1 requirements. While the first aircraft MS.406 heaven, the command of the French military MS.406 production it has reached 1000. Apparently Morane Sauniere company's production capacity has been unable to meet this command, so in the country and set up three manufacturing plants, and quickly put into mass production. The aircraft production MS.406 heaven on January 29, 1939. To April, the production efficiency of the aircraft has reached six a day. To the date of France declared war on Germany on September 3, 1939, has been is 535 MS.406 factory productivity also increased to 11 per day. France before the Battle of the 60 MS.406 fighter export. November 1939 to January 1940, 30 MS.406 exports to Finland, 30 in February-March 1940, exports to Turkey. Combat proved MS.406 this early monoplane fighter performance worse than faster Bf-109D. Sometimes even Dornier reconnaissance aircraft are difficult to beat down MS.406 weapons too poor and weak efficiency is also poor. Aircraft a 20 mm cannon firing rate is too slow, and two 7.5 mm machine gun power is too small. Nevertheless, the French pilots still doggedly driving such a fighter and the German Bf-109D confrontation. But as the play faster and better performance Bf-109E by the end of 1939, the French Air Force, the situation is worse. France recognized the weaknesses of the aircraft began to improve, main focus in trouble detachable radiator and firepower configuration. The new retrofit replacement for the fixed radiator, machine guns by playing the drum for bombs instead the bomb chain for bomb. The new aircraft in 1940 heaven named MS.410. The new aircraft also tested a new exhaust means, the maximum speed increased to 509 km / h when the engine cooling efficiency is greatly improved. French Air Force ordered to refit 500 MS.406 accordance with this standard, but only five aircraft completed before the truce on June 25, 1940. In March 1940, MS.406 received in the French Air Force 1064 to suspend production. Germany began the offensive of the Battle of France on March 10. Courageous battle France driving MS.406 fighter pilots shot down 175 German aircraft, but their own more heavy losses, destroyed more than 400 aircraft. Most of them are on the ground was destroyed by German bombers, a loss of more than 100 aircraft in aerial combat. In addition, there are about 150 MS.406 Germans approaching the base by the French themselves destroyed. France final assessment of the "C1 requirements identified through brutal combat proved a false standard equipment. The same "C1 requirements of product, D.520, MB.152 even VG.33 to be much stronger than MS.406. MS.406 occupy the first of Lee, as well as the French bureaucrats "preconceived", D.520 later this dismissive, coupled with the the wrong tactical thinking of the French military, resulting in a large number of French pilots have died in vain. Performance data: a wingspan of 10.62 meters, the captain of 8.17 m, height 2.71 m, wing area of 17.10 square meters. Weight data: empty weight of 1893 kg, normal takeoff weight of 2426 kg, maximum take-off weight of 2540 kg. Performance data: a maximum speed of 486 km / h, service ceiling of 11,000 meters, a range of 1,200 kilometers. Weaponry: the nose of a 20 mm cannon, two wing 7.5 mm machine guns. Power plant: a "Spain - Switzerland the" HS 12Y31 piston engine power of 860 horsepower.