Spanish Air Force during the WWII

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The famous He-111 served in Spain for long time; during the WWII was the main bomber of the Spanish Air Force, and the spanish version of this bomber, the CASA C-2111, operated until 1976.
 

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More pics
 

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The pictures number four and five are very interesting: between 1943 and 1944 Spain acquired three H-111J and three more of the H version for meteorological reconnaissance, being their services used by germans to get the weather information. These planes were ususally flown by spanish pilots with german crews. These aircrafts received the civil code MB.2 and they never depended of the war departament.
 

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The last picture is also remarkable; this time is a CASA C-2111C, a VIP transport version with double control. Around 30 units of this version were built, receiving the code T-8B and being sent to the Trainning School of Jerez, the airfields of Getafe,Cuatro Vientos,Villanubla and San Javier. One single example was used for SAR (Search and Rescue) missions, having its base at Getafe.
 

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The Junkers Ju 52 (nicknamed Tante Ju—"Auntie Ju" and Eisen Annie—"Iron Annie") was a German transport aircraft manufactured from 1932 to 1945. It saw both civilian and military service during the 1930s and 1940s. In a civilian role, it flew with over 12 air carriers including Swissair and Deutsche Luft Hansa as an airliner and freight hauler. In a military role, it flew with the Luftwaffe as a troop and cargo transport and briefly as a medium bomber. The Spanish Air Force operated the Ju 52 until well into the 1970s. Escuadrón 721 flying the Spanish-built versions, was employed in training parachutists from Alcantarilla Air Base near Murcia. Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA continued production as the CASA 352 and 352L. 106 examples of the first version were built, and 64 of the second, that fitted ENMA (ex-Elizalde) Beta B-4 engines.
 

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Sturdy and agile, the Bü 131A was first delivered to the Deutscher Luftsportverband (DLV). The Bü 131B was selected as the primary basic trainer for the German Luftwaffe, and it served with "virtually all" the Luftwaffe's primary flying schools during the war, as well as with night harassment units such as Nachtschlacht Gruppen (NSGr) 2, 11, and 12. Yugoslavia was the main prewar export customer; "as many as 400 may have found their way" there. She was joined by Bulgaria with 15 and Rumania with 40.

Production licenses were granted to Switzerland (using 94, 88 built under licence to Dornier), Spain (building about 530), Hungary (which operated 315), Czechoslovakia (10, as the Tatra T 131, before war began), and Japan, the last of which built 1,037 for Army with Hatsukaze power as the Kokusai Ki-86 and 339 for the Navy Air Services as the Kyūshū K9W. In Spain, production continued at CASA until the early 1960s. The Jungmann was retained as the Spanish Air Force's primary basic trainer until 1968. About 200 Jungmanns survive to this day, many having been fitted with modern engines. In 1994, the Bü 131 was restored to production briefly using CASA jigs by Bücker Prado, with 21 aircraft constructed as the BP 131.
 

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The Heinkel He 114 was a biplane reconnaissance seaplane produced for the Kriegsmarine in the 1930s for use from warships. It replaced the company's He 60, but did not remain in service long before being replaced in turn by the Arado Ar 196 as Germany's standard spotter aircraft. While the fuselage and flotation gear of the He 114 were completely conventional, its wing arrangement was highly unusual. The upper set of wings was attached to the fuselage with a set of cabane struts, as in a parasol wing monoplane, whereas the lower set was of much lesser span while having approximately the same chord.
 

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Once the Spanish Civil War ended, the Heinkel He-45 spent its last days as a tactical trainer. All the survivor planes were taken to the Matacan Trainning School, where they were used until they were withdrawn from service. In many ways very similar to the Breguet XIX but faster, more powerful and better armed, it was used as a ground attack fighter, close support and also for combat trainning, performing the famous "chain ground attak" during the war.
 

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The Fieseler Fi 156 Storch (stork) was a small German liaison aircraft built by Fieseler before and during World War II, and production continued in other countries into the 1950s for the private market. It remains famous to this day for its excellent STOL performance, and French-built later variants often appear at air shows. In 1935, the RLM (Reichsluftfahrtministerium, Reich Aviation Ministry) put out a tender for a new Luftwaffe aircraft suitable for liaison, army co-operation (today called Forward Air Control), and medical evacuation, to several companies. Conceived by chief designer Reinhold Mewes and technical director Erich Bachem, Fieseler's entry was by far the most advanced in terms of STOL (Short Take Off and Landing) performance. A fixed slat ran along the entire leading edge of the long wings, while the entire trailing edge, inspired by earlier 1930s Junkers "double-wing" aircraft wing control surface designs, including the ailerons, was a hinged and slotted flap.

In a design feature rare for land-based aircraft, the wings on the Storch could be folded back along the fuselage in a manner not unlike that of the US Navy's F4F Wildcat fighter, allowing it to be carried on a trailer or even towed slowly behind a vehicle. The long legs of the main landing gear contained oil-and-spring shock absorbers that compressed about 450 mm (18 inches) on landing, allowing the plane to set down almost anywhere. In flight they hung down, giving the aircraft the appearance of a very long-legged, big-winged bird, hence its nickname, Storch. With its very low landing speed the Storch often appeared to land vertically, or even backwards, in strong winds from directly ahead.

The first six aircraft transfered to Spain were early Fi 156A types and were operated by the Legion Condor. These aircraft were coded 46-01 to 46-06 and were not used as observation aircraft, but mainly for liaison duties and as personal tacks. The first four aircraft arrived in late 1936 and were delivered to Stab/88. The remaining 4 Fi 156As were supplemented by some 20 Fi 156C-2s from 1939 onwards and these were used both for civilian as for military purposes. They were retired in 1962.
 

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During the first months of 1937 three Klemm Kl-32 arrived to Spain with the Kondor Legion, being employed as transport and liaison aircraft. These planes were fitted with a Sh.14A Siemens engine of 150 c.v, and during the conflict they were coded with the number 30. Once the war ended, the three survivors continued being used as liaison aircrafts, this time with the L-4 code. The Klemms were retired in 1955.
 

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The Bü 133C racked up numerous victories in international aerobatic competition, and by 1938 was the Luftwaffe's standard advanced trainer. At the Brussels meet that year, a three-man Luftwaffe team made a strong impression on Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring, who ordered a nine-man team be formed. It dazzled the crowds at the International Flying meet in Brussels the next year. Fifty-two were manufactured under licence by Dornier for the Swiss Air Force (which kept it in service until 1968), and a similar number the Spanish air force by CASA. The Jungmeister design remained competitive in international aerobatic competition into the 1960s.
 

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Lufthansa operated He 70s between 1934 and 1937 for fast flight service which connected Berlin with Frankfurt, Hamburg and Cologne, as well as the Cologne/Hamburg route. Lufthansa He 70s were flown abroad from Stuttgart to Sevilla between 1934 and 1936. Remaining aircraft were transferred to the Luftwaffe in 1937. Twenty-eight aircraft were sent with the Legion Condor, where they were used during the Spanish Civil War as fast reconnaissance aircraft. Their high speed gave them the nickname Rayo (lightning).

The He 70K (later He 170), a fast reconnaissance airplane variant was used by the Royal Hungarian Air Force in early World War II during 1941-42. The Luftwaffe operated He 70s from 1935, initially as a light bomber and reconnaissance aircraft, later as a liaison and courier aircraft. The main weakness of the He 70 design soon became obvious. The He 70 airframe was made out of so-called "electron metal", a very light, yet strong alloy of magnesium, which burns spontaneously in air when heated, and is only exhausted when covered in sand. A single hit from a light machine gun usually set the entire plane ablaze, killing the crew. The Hungarian He 70K fleet was promptly retired and replaced with vintage, high-wing He 46 monoplanes until modern Bf 109 fighter-recce and specialized Fw 189 "Uhu" medium altitude observation aircraft could be introduced.
 

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Arado's chief designer Walter Rethel started design of a new two-seat trainer in 1931, with the design being developed by Walter Blume when Rethel transferred to Messerschmitt, with the first prototype, the Ar 66a flying in 1932. The Ar 66 had an Argus As 10 air-cooled inverted V8 engine producing about 179 kW (240 hp), which drove a 2.5 m (8.2 ft) two-blade propeller. It carried 205 L (54 US gal) of fuel, and 17 L (4 US gal) of oil. The fuselage had an oval cross-section and was made of welded steel tubes, covered with fabric. The double wings provided very high lift, even at low speeds. Both wings had the same span and an 8° sweep. Construction consisted of a double pine cross-beam structure, with lime tree ribs, and fabric covering. There were ailerons in both upper and lower wings. The tail had a conventional design, with the horizontal stabilizer mounted on the fuselage upper edge. The rudder was placed behind the elevator. Both the rudder and the elevator were of steel tube covered in fabric, and had a bigger surface than the first version to correct balance problems. The steel tube undercarriage was attached to the fuselage in a "V" shape and used a high-pressure rubber suspension. The crew consisted of two: instructor pilot and trainee, seated in open tandem cockpits equipped with dual controls. The aircraft was equipped with instrument flight systems with photographic cameras were mounted as optional equipment.
 

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The Junkers W33 was a direct modification of the Junkers F13 for cargo operations. The fuselage was lower than that of the F13 as there was no passenger compartment and the initial series did not have any windows in the cargo compartment. For combined cargo/passenger operations these windows were again introduced on later versions of the W33. The cargo loading could be performed through a side door or through a door in the cabin roof. On June 17th 1926 Zimmermann performed the first flight of the Junkers W33 (c/n 794). The prototype was a seaplane version and the first flight was performed on river Elbe at Leopoldshafen near Dessau.

The first W34 was first flown just a few weeks after the W33 on July 7th 1926 by Zimmermann. Both prototypes appeared nearly identical except for the different engines. Instead of the Junkers L5 engine of the W33, the W34 was equipped with a 353kW Gnome et Rhone Jupiter VI engine. While future developements of the W33 kept the Junkers engines, the W34 was offered with a wide range of different engines, which also influenced the outside appearance and dimensions of the W34. Also the cabin roof was a little bit higher as on the W33, making the W34 more capable as a combined cargo and passenger airliner. Finally the early serial production W34 also show differences at the tail unit, which was larger than that of the W33.

While the W33/W34 could be built in Germany after the ban over Germany's aviation industry was lowered in 1926, Junkers still was forced to convert his aircraft for military purposes outside of Germany. A military derivate was built from the W34 at A.B. Flygindustri at Limhamn in Sweden under the designation K43. This K43 mounted a machine gun tower at the rear part of the cabin. It could be used as a transport aircraft, but also as a light bomber aircraft. At least 18 militarized K43 left Limhamn for Finland, Argentina, Portugal, Bolivia and Chile. Additional 21 W33/W34 should have been built at Limhamn. Some of these were ambulance aircraft and transport aircraft for military purposes. One W33g was sold to the Swedish Air Force in 1933 and designated as Trp 2. It was used until 1935 as an ambulance aircraft in Sweden. Two further W34h were used by the Swedish Air Force as Trp 2A between 1933 and 1945 for the same purpose.

The 8 Junkers W.34 delivered to Spain to support the Legion Condor were mainly used as (personal) transports, navigational trainers or used for weather forecasting. They all bore the military serials 43o?, from 1946 onwards replaced by the code L.14 (82o??) and some of them continued in service until the 1950s.
 

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According to Gerald Howson four Taifuns were serving with the Condor Legion, while three more arrived directly after the end of hostilities. Despite some minor crashes all seven were still flying in 1940. In 1945 the type code changed from 44 to L.15.
 

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