Armee de l`Air´s pre-war aircrafts

Discussion in 'Aircraft Pictures' started by gekho, Jan 13, 2012.

  1. gekho

    gekho Active Member

    Joined:
    Jan 1, 2010
    Messages:
    2,816
    Likes Received:
    19
    Trophy Points:
    38
    Occupation:
    Lawyer
    Location:
    Spain
    #1 gekho, Jan 13, 2012
    Last edited: Jan 13, 2012
    The French air force was the world's largest and most powerful when World War I ended in 1918. Although not a separate service, it nonetheless enjoyed a certain prestige for its excellent performance during the war. Things soon deteriorated, however. The technological development of the French ground forces was limited by the rigid doctrine of the army; the French air force suffered from the opposite situation: a lack of clear doctrine providing consistent paradigms for the development of technology. In the decade after World War I, French air doctrine developed little from the operations of 1918. The army placed little confidence in airpower as having a decisive effect upon the battlefield. General Maurice Gamelin, appointed as Supreme Commander of the armed forces in 1938, believed that the losses of aircraft in the first few weeks of the war would be so heavy, that airpower would cease to be an important factor in the battle.

    The formation in 1928 of an air ministry independent of the ministry of war offered the aviators a separate promotion list, the opportunity to organize the air force as they saw fit, and an air force general staff to make policy. The 1928 Air Service Operational Doctrine stressed the need to gain air superiority. Air Superiority would not, however, be gained by bombing enemy airfields or infrastructure, as in German doctrine. Air superiority would be gained by masses of fighter planes over the front, in French doctrine. Between 1926 and 1937, the number of squadrons rose from 124 to 134, while the number of grouses (commanded by majors) rose from 52 to 67. The fifteen aviation regiments, formations composed of several groups, were converted to thirty escadres, each having only two groups. The number of command positions for colonels was thereby doubled. The senior aviation commands-two air divisions in 1926-were changed to four air regions in 1932 and to two air corps and six air divisions in 1937. The army and the navy had fought the creation of the air ministry and the independent air force with sufficient vigor to retain operational control of 118 of the 134 combat squadrons. The air force officers were responsible for training, administering, and commanding the air force in time of peace; but in wartime, only sixteen squadrons of bombers would remain under the air force chain of command.

    The Armée de l'Air, only created in 1933 as an independent arm, was mentally mired in a battle with its late Army parent that crippled the creation of doctrine. Though nominally an independent service since 1930, the French air force was organizationally and doctrinally tied to the methodical defensive strategy of the French army; it had no capacity to wage a coherent air war against either the Luftwaffe or German industry. At the same time it faced three tasks - defense of the territories, grand-strategic attacks on enemy resources, and army cooperation (assault). This situation meant that there were four very different demands upon French resources - political, fiscal, industrial, and human. Money was not available because the Army dominated the defense structure and did not understand the complexities of aviation, while at the same time insistently demanding its own support aviation. The French Air Force chiefs of staff in the 1930s showed little interest in operational innovation. The two French Air Force Chiefs of Staff prior to World War II: General Philippe Frequant (October 1936 to February 1938) and General Joseph Vuillemin (February 1938 to July 1940) initiated no programs for the air force beyond traditional technologies of standard bombers, fighters and reconnaissance models. Thus, in 1940, the French Air Force had no radar and little in the way of radio navigation equipment. In particular, after little serious study or experimentation, the French Air Force rejected the concept of the dive bomber.

    Owing to prewar decisions and conditions, the Armée de l'Air was short of credits until 1938, short of modern aircraft, and short of aircrew and mechanics. Modern aircraft could not be produced for a variety of reasons, among others, lack of designs, shortage of reliable high-horsepower engines, time in which to test and develop both designs and engines during the technological revolution, properly scheduled delivery of essentials such as propellers and guns, and a paucity of personnel to test and deliver as well as to modify and maintain this equipment. Additionally, French aircraft factories lacked mass production techniques and suffered chronic labor unrest; worse still, French air planners made premature procurement decisions that rendered much of the French air force obsolete in 1940. By the late 1930s the French were thoroughly pessimistic over the Nazi air threat. Though French intelligence correctly concluded that the Luftwaffe's primary role was to support German army operations, the leadership of the French air force had no confidence in its own service in a contest with the Luftwaffe. The French air force offered Daladier no offensive options and no convincing defensive options against a sustained Luftwaffe assault. Finally, France, like Britain, fell for Berlin's strategic deception on the strength of German air power.

    The director of aircraft production advised the chief of the air force, in January 1939 that 370 to 600 aircraft per month would come from French factories in 1940. But the availability of aircrews became the limiting factor on the number of units that could be fielded, and the physical capacities of his aging pilots became the limiting factor on how frequently the aircraft would fly. There were not enough aircrews or ground crews for larger numbers of aircraft, and to expand the training program would require the efforts of the entire strength of the air force. The failure of the French Air Staff to plan or organize for the broader requirements of technology was directly translated into extremely low readiness rates for French aircraft in May, 1940. Exact figures for aircraft operational rates are not available (another sign of French disorganization) for May, 1940 but a fair estimate from the numbers of aircraft that flew on missions is an average operational rate of about 50-60% for fighter units.

    When the blitzkrieg hit France, 119 of 210 squadrons were ready for action on the decisive northeastern front. The others were reequipping or stationed in the colonies. The 119 squadrons could bring into action only one-fourth of the aircraft available. These circumstances put the Allied air forces in a position of severe numerical inferiority vis-à-vis the Luftwaffe. As the battle opened, both the 40 percent shortage of mechanics and the absence of a trained reserve of pilots and other aircrew, meant a quick onset of fatigue so that efficiency dropped rapidly. Equally debilitating was the fact that French fighters were slower, heavier, less reliable, and not as easily replaceable as the Luftwaffe's Me-109 and Me-110. In short, the calamity of 1940 had many causes.
     
  2. gekho

    gekho Active Member

    Joined:
    Jan 1, 2010
    Messages:
    2,816
    Likes Received:
    19
    Trophy Points:
    38
    Occupation:
    Lawyer
    Location:
    Spain
    #2 gekho, Jan 13, 2012
    Last edited: Jan 23, 2012
    The NiD.29 was an equal-span biplane with ailerons on both upper and lower wings. It had a fixed tailskid landing gear, a nose-mounted engine and a single open cockpit for the pilot. The prototype NiD 29 first flew on the 21 August 1918 powered by a Hispano-Suiza 8Fb engine piston engine, it performed well in test but could not achieve the required ceiling. The second prototype was modified with an increased wingspan and on achieving the required ceiling it was ordered into production in 1920, becoming the fastest service fighter in the world at that time. Production aircraft did not have ailerons on the upper wing and the lower wing ailerons were increased in size.

    The first deliveries were made in 1922 to the French Air Force and the type was popular although it did have a tendency to enter a flat spin. The French military bought 250 aircraft which were built by Nieuport and seven other companies. The Ni-D 29 was to become an important fighter in the 1920s with purchases of 30 by Spain (including 10 Spanish licence built aircraft), 108 by Belgium (87 licensed built by SABCA). The Italian Regia Aeronuatica bought 175 aircraft including 95 built by Macchi as the Macchi-Nieuport 29 and 80 built by Caproni. Sweden bought nine aircraft and designated them J 2. The Japanese company Nakajima bought a pattern aircraft and built 608 for the Imperial Japanese Army as the Ko-4. Racing versions of the aircraft were developed and they gained eight world speed records and won the 1919 Coupe Deutsche and the 1920 Gordon Bennet Trophy.
     

    Attached Files:

  3. gekho

    gekho Active Member

    Joined:
    Jan 1, 2010
    Messages:
    2,816
    Likes Received:
    19
    Trophy Points:
    38
    Occupation:
    Lawyer
    Location:
    Spain
    #3 gekho, Jan 13, 2012
    Last edited: Jan 13, 2012
    The Nieuport-Delage NiD 62 was a French sesquiplane fighter from the early 1930s. This machine is a descendant of a long line of Nieuport-Delage fighters that were designed and built during the years immediately after World War I. The Ni-D.62 was built in 1931 as a fighter for the Armée de l'Air. It served until the late 1930s, when it was replaced by more modern monoplane fighters. By the time of the outbreak of World War II in September 1939, all of the NiD 62s had been withdrawn from fighter escadrilles but were used as trainers in French flight schools. A few aircraft were employed as target tugs. After the French capitulation and German occupation of France in June 1940, the German Luftwaffe had no interest in the NiD 62s and they were scrapped. None survived the war.
     

    Attached Files:

  4. gekho

    gekho Active Member

    Joined:
    Jan 1, 2010
    Messages:
    2,816
    Likes Received:
    19
    Trophy Points:
    38
    Occupation:
    Lawyer
    Location:
    Spain
    A three-seat version of the LeO 122 prototype, the Liore-et-Olivier 20 won the 1926 French ministry of war competition for a new night bomber, and in September of that year the prototype established world distance records with a 2000kg payload. The first order for 50 aircraft, for the French Aeronautique Militaire, was received at the end of 1926, the first LeO 20s being flight-tested at Villacoublay in 1927. Further orders followed, and the last of the 311 machines taken on charge by the French air arm was accepted in December 1932. The LeO 20s equipped the 12 escadrilles of the 21e and 22e Regiments d'Aviation based at Nancy and Chartres respectively. A considerable number went to the multi-engined training school of the Aeronautique Militaire at Etampes. LeO 20s were supplied later to the 12e Regiment d'Aviation at Reims and to the 34e Regiment d'Aviation at Le Bourget. The type remained the backbone of the French night-bomber force for a decade.

    Nine LeO 20s were exported in 1928-29, seven to Romania and two to Brazil, as a result of demonstration flights abroad by a LeO 20 registered F-AIFI, which was later delivered to the Armee de I'Air. At the beginning of 1937 224 LeO 20s were still in French service, although by that time its relatively low speed meant that the type was obsolete. On the eve of World War II, 92 LeO 20s were still in flying condition, many as target tugs or trainers with flying schools in France and North Africa, and a further 23 were in storage. Earlier, a number had been re-designated LeO 201 when adapted for parachute training.

    Source: Liore-Olivier LeO 20 - night bomber
     

    Attached Files:

  5. gekho

    gekho Active Member

    Joined:
    Jan 1, 2010
    Messages:
    2,816
    Likes Received:
    19
    Trophy Points:
    38
    Occupation:
    Lawyer
    Location:
    Spain
    #5 gekho, Jan 14, 2012
    Last edited: Jan 21, 2012
    The Morane-Saulnier M.S. 225 was an interim fighter design that saw front line service between 1933 and 1936, while the Armée de l'Air waited for more modern aircraft to enter production. In 1926 the French Air Ministry, concerned about the rising price of fighter aircraft, had issued a specification for a lightweight fighter. Seven different designs were produced in response to this specification, which became known as the 'Jockey' programme. The new fighter was to serve as an interceptor, using a fast rate of climb to catch enemy bombers as they crossed the French border, but it was also to use a moderately powerful engine and only carry two 7.7mm machine guns. Morane-Saulnier responded with a series of parasol wing fighters, starting with the M.S. 121 of 1927. This was the first fighter aircraft designed by Morane-Saulnier after the First World War, and set the basic pattern for the entire series. It had a swept back wing with rounded tips. The fuselage was built around a metal framework, faired out to give it an oval cross section when covered in fabric. The wings had wooden ribs and metal spars.

    The M.S. 121 lacked power and failed to achieve the required rate of climb. It was followed by the M.S. 221 of 1928, which had a more powerful engine and a better climb rate, but still lacked speed. The M.S. 222 was given a turbo-supercharged engine. Its top speed remained the same, but was achieved at a higher altitude. Finally, the M.S. 223 of 1930 introduced a divided undercarriage with oleo pneumatic shock absorbers. Soon after this aircraft made its maiden flight, the 'Jockey' programme was cancelled, having failed to produce any suitable aircraft. After abandoning the 'Jockey' programme the French air ministry issued a new specification, for a C1 fighter (monoplace de chasse, or single seat fighter). This was modified on 26 January 1931, and was very productive, with ten different prototypes being ordered. However it was clear that none of these aircraft could enter service quickly, and so an interim design was needed. Morane-Saulnier already had a candidate - the M.S. 224. This was a larger version of the M.S. 222, powered by a Gnome-Rhône 9Asb. Despite an increase in loaded weight of some 200lb, the M.S. 224 reached a top speed of 188mph, well up on the 166mph of the M.S. 222.

    This was followed by the M.S. 225. This aircraft had the same basic configuration and construction methods as the entire family based on the M.S. 121, and was a parasol wing fighter, with a swept back wing with rounded tips. The wing had wooden ribs and metal spars and the fuselage was built around a metal framework, faired out to produce an almost circular cross section. The main wheels were carried on separate oleo-pneumatic shock absorbers. The wing was slightly larger than on the M.S. 224, and power was now provided by a supercharged Gnôme-Rhone 9Kbrs engine, providing 500hp. Top speed rose to 207mph at 13,125ft. The M.S. 225 was displayed in mock-up form at the 1932 Paris Salon de l'Aéronautique. The prototype was quickly completed, and after successful trials the aircraft was ordered into production. It was always seen as an interim design, and only 75 were produced in 1933-34. Of these 55 went to the Armée de l'Air (formed in 1934, replacing the Aviation Militaire). Sixteen went to the Aéronautique Maritime. Three went to China and the last was used by Detroyat, a famous display pilot.

    The Armée de l'Air used the M.S. 225 to equip two escadrilles of the 7th Escadre at Dijon and two escadrilles of the 42nd Escadre at Reims. The Aeronautique used it to equip Escadrille 3C1 at Marignane. This unit became the 1st Escadrille of the Armée de l'Air's Groupe de Chasse II/8 early in 1936. The four older Armée de l'Air escadrilles kept their M.S. 225s until 1936-7, while the 1st Escadrille, Groupe de Chasse II/8 kept them until July 1938.The M.S. 225 was also used by two display teams. The 'Patrouille Acrobatique' at Etamples used five from 1934-1938, while the Patrouille of the Ecole de l'Air at Salon de Provence used fifteen aircraft modified for aerobatics. This display team was still using the M.S.225 in 1939, but all surviving aircraft had been scrapped by the summer of 1940. Several variants of the M.S. 225 were produced. The M.S. 226 was a carrier version. The M.S. 227 used a Hispano-Suize engine and the M.S 278 used a diesel engine. The M.S. 275, one of Morane-Saulnier's two designs submitted in response to the 1930/31 fighter specification was a very similar parasol fighter, although was largely redesigned.

    Source: Morane-Saulnier M.S.225
     

    Attached Files:

  6. Wayne Little

    Wayne Little Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Oct 7, 2006
    Messages:
    51,151
    Likes Received:
    846
    Trophy Points:
    113
    Location:
    Adelaide Sth. Aust.
    Some interesting subjects!
     
  7. gekho

    gekho Active Member

    Joined:
    Jan 1, 2010
    Messages:
    2,816
    Likes Received:
    19
    Trophy Points:
    38
    Occupation:
    Lawyer
    Location:
    Spain
    The Potez 39 was designed to a 1928 requirement for an aircraft to replace the Potez 25 and Breguet 19 machines then in service with the French Air Force in the A2 (Artillerie Biplace - two seat observation aircraft) role. The aircraft was a parasol monoplane of all-metal construction, the first all metal Potez aircraft, with a tailwheel undercarriage. It was powered by a Hispano-Suiza 12H engine of 580 bhp (433 kW) as required by the specification. The crew of two sat in open, tandem cockpits, with the observer being armed with two Lewis guns on a ring mounting, and the pilot being armed with a single synchronised Darne machine gun, while light bombs could be carried in a small internal bomb-bay and on external racks. A fixed camera was fitted, operating through a hatch in the fuselage floor.

    The prototype flew in January 1930. Although the Breguet 27 was selected as the winner of the competition, both it and the Potez, which was runner-up, were chosen for production. Compared to the Potez 25, of which over 2000 were ordered, production of the Potez 39 series was on a small scale, 100 Potez 390 aircraft being built for France and 12 Potez 391 variants, powered by a Lorraine-Dietrich 12H engine of 700 bhp, for the Peruvian Air Force. A number of prototype and development aircraft, including a floatplane, were tested but no further orders were received.

    First production aircraft were delivered in 1934 and the Potez 39 began to be replaced by ANF Les Mureaux 117, Amiot 143 and Potez 540 aircraft began in 1936. At the outbreak of the Second World War the Potez 39 remained in service with seven observation squadrons of the French Air Force, but these, along with the Breguet 27-equipped units, were withdrawn from the front in October 1939. The Potez 39 continued to serve in training units until the armistice of June 1940, at which time 41 remained in Metropolitan France. These aircraft were scrapped soon afterwards.
     

    Attached Files:

  8. gekho

    gekho Active Member

    Joined:
    Jan 1, 2010
    Messages:
    2,816
    Likes Received:
    19
    Trophy Points:
    38
    Occupation:
    Lawyer
    Location:
    Spain
    One of the most famous military aircraft of the inter-war period, the Potez 25 was developed from the Potez 24 A.2-category prototype, which had been designed by Louis Coroller and flown in 1924. The refined Potez 25 prototype was built at the new Potez factory at Meaulte and flew for the first time in early 1925. An unequal-span biplane, the Potez 25 had an engine mounting capable of taking a wide variety of powerplants in the 298kW to 447kW range. The carefully contoured fuselage accommodated pilot and observer/gunner close together in tandem cockpits beneath a cut-out in the trailing edge of the upper wing centre section. The new cross-axle landing gear had specially designed Potez shock absorbers.

    In all, 87 variants of the type were developed for military and civil use, and over 3,500 examples were built in France, most at the Potez factory, but others under licence by A.N.F. Les Mureaux and Hanriot. Abroad, 300 Potez 25s were licence-built in Poland, 200 in Yugoslavia, 70 in Romania and 27 in Portugal. Other countries which used French-built aircraft included China, where the type was used against the Japanese; Paraguay, where it operated against the Bolivian air arm; Uruguay; Greece; Ethiopia, which flew a small number against the invading Italian troops in 1935; Switzerland, which retained the type in service until 1940; and Estonia. In addition test examples were sold to the Soviet Union and some dozen other countries. Many of the exported and licence-built Potez 25s were of the B.2 two-seat light bomber version. Civil Potez 25s with Lorraine engines were used by Aeropostale and its assodated companies in South America for regular mail flights over the Andes, and also by the Caudron and Hanriot flying schools. The Compagnie Francaise d'Aviation used Salmson-powered Potez 25s for training.

    Source:Potez 25 - general-purpose military aircraft
     

    Attached Files:

  9. vikingBerserker

    vikingBerserker Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Apr 10, 2009
    Messages:
    24,064
    Likes Received:
    655
    Trophy Points:
    113
    Occupation:
    Korporate Kontrolleur
    Location:
    South Carolina
    You have some of the best threads, well done.
     
  10. Gnomey

    Gnomey World Travelling Doctor
    Staff Member Moderator

    Joined:
    Nov 28, 2004
    Messages:
    41,710
    Likes Received:
    517
    Trophy Points:
    113
    Gender:
    Male
    Occupation:
    Doctor
    Location:
    Portsmouth / Royal Deeside, UK
    Home Page:
    Good stuff!
     
  11. gekho

    gekho Active Member

    Joined:
    Jan 1, 2010
    Messages:
    2,816
    Likes Received:
    19
    Trophy Points:
    38
    Occupation:
    Lawyer
    Location:
    Spain
    The ANF Les Mureaux 110 and its derivatives were a family of French reconnaissance aircraft developed in the 1930s. They were all-metal, parasol-wing monoplanes that seated the pilot and observer in tandem open cockpits. The aircraft were widely used in the Battle of France, but were all scrapped soon thereafter. The ANF Les Mureaux 110 originated with a French air ministry requirement for an aircraft to replace the Breguet 19 in Armeé de l'Air service in the "R2" reconnaissance role. Two slightly different variants, the 110 and 111 were presented to the air force for evaluation, and were soon ordered into production. The first mass-production version was the 113 in 1933, of which 49 examples were purchased. This was supplanted in production by the 115 in 1935 and the 117 later than year. Both these series were given light bombing capability as well.

    The 113 entered service initially with the Armée de l'Air's reconnaissance Groupes, followed by the observation Groupes, and finally replacing the venerable Potez 25s in the Groupes Aériens Régionaux reserve units. It was followed into service by the 117 and 115. From 1934 to 35, 40 of the original 113s were converted into night fighters and used to replace the Breguet 19s still in service with France's two nightfighter Groupes. By the outbreak of World War II, the 115 equipped nine Groupes Aériens d'Observation, and the 117 nine more. By April 1940, 11 aircraft had been lost in action, leaving 228 on strength at the commencement of the Blitzkrieg in May. By the time of the French armistice with Germany on June 25, only 62 remained, some of these in North Africa.
     

    Attached Files:

  12. gekho

    gekho Active Member

    Joined:
    Jan 1, 2010
    Messages:
    2,816
    Likes Received:
    19
    Trophy Points:
    38
    Occupation:
    Lawyer
    Location:
    Spain
    The aircraft was designed by Louis Breguet, who flew the first prototype (originally designated Breguet AV Type XIV) on its first flight on 21 November 1916. The design was a come-back for Breguet to designing conventional planes, after designing pusher-type aircraft Breguet BUM. Later that month, the French Army's Section Technique de l' Aéronautique (S.T.Aé.) issued requirements for four different new aircraft types. Breguet submitted his new design for two of those categories - reconnaissance aircraft, and bomber. Following evaluation in February, the Breguet 14 was accepted for both these roles, and in March, orders were placed for 150 reconnaissance aircraft and 100 bombers, designated Breguet 14 A.2 and 14 B.2 respectively (by 1918 written Breguet XIV A2/B2). The A.2 was equipped with a camera, with some carrying radios, while the lower wing of the 14 B.2 was modified slightly in order to accommodate bomb racks (built by Michelin). Both variants featured automatic, bungee-cord operated aerodynamic flaps, but these were not fitted to production aircraft. A number of B2 models were equipped with the U.S. built Liberty engine and were denoted Breguet 14 B2 L. Other minor variants flown in small numbers during the war included the 14 B.1 long-range single-seat bomber, the 14 GR.2 long-range reconnaissance, the 14 H floatplane, the 14 S air ambulance and the 14 Et.2 trainer. Later variants 14bis A2 and 14bis B2 featured improved wing. An improved variant with bigger wings was the 16. There was also the two-seat fighter 17, which was built in small numbers only.

    Following successful deployment by the French, the type was also ordered by the Belgian Army (40 aircraft) and the United States Army Air Service (over 600 aircraft). Around half the Belgian and US aircraft were fitted with Fiat A.12 engines due to shortages of the original Renault 12F. By the end of World War I, some 5,500 Breguet 14s had been produced. The type continued to be widely used after the war, equipping the French occupation forces in Germany and being deployed to support French troops in the colonies. A special version was developed for the harsh conditions encountered overseas, designated 14 TOE (Théatres des Operations Extérieures). These saw service in putting down uprisings in Syria and Morocco, in Vietnam and in France's attempted intervention in the Russian Civil War. The last trainer examples were not withdrawn from French military service until 1932. Other air arms using the type included Brazil (30), China (70), Czechoslovakia (10), Denmark, Finland (38), Greece, Japan, Siamese Air Force, Uruguay (9) and Spain. Polish Air Force used 158 Breguet 14s, about 70 of them were used in combat in the Polish-Soviet war. In Japan, Breguet 14s were licence built by Nakajima.

    Post war, Breguet had also begun to manufacture dedicated civil versions. The 14 T.2 Salon carried two passengers in a specially modified fuselage. An improved version of this was the 14 Tbis manufactured as both a land-plane and seaplane. The 14 Tbis also formed the basis of the improved 14 Tbis Sanitaire air ambulance version, and 100 mail planes custom-built for Pierre Latécoère's fledgling airline, Lignes Aeriennes Latécoère. After changing name to CGEA, the airline used among others 106 Breguet 14s for flights over Sahara desert. The 18 T was a single 14 T re-engined with a Renault Ja engine and equipped to carry four passengers. When production finally ceased in 1928, the total of all versions built had reached 7,800 (according to other sources, 8,000 or even 8,370).
     

    Attached Files:

  13. vikingBerserker

    vikingBerserker Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Apr 10, 2009
    Messages:
    24,064
    Likes Received:
    655
    Trophy Points:
    113
    Occupation:
    Korporate Kontrolleur
    Location:
    South Carolina
    I like that one.
     
  14. gekho

    gekho Active Member

    Joined:
    Jan 1, 2010
    Messages:
    2,816
    Likes Received:
    19
    Trophy Points:
    38
    Occupation:
    Lawyer
    Location:
    Spain
    The Bre 17 two-seat fighter was a both more powerful and more compact deviate of the classic Bre 14 bomber, and resembled the latter in both structure and appearance. Powered by a 420 hp Renault 12K twelve-cylinder water-cooled V-engine, the Bre 17 prototype was a two-bay biplane and it appeared in the summer of 1918. Armament comprised two fixed forward-firing 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers guns and twin Lewis guns of the same caliber on a T.O.3 mount for the observer. Provision for an additional Lewis gun was made, this to fire downwards and rearwards through a trap in the fuselage. Official trials resulted in a request for modifications, new wings increased span and a 450 hp Renault 12K1 engine being fitted, the modified aircraft was designated Bre 17 C2. The Société Anonyme des Ateliers d’Aviation Louis Breguet at Vélizy-Chaville, Seine et Oise, France undertook limited production and delivered some 100 aircraft of the Bre 17 C2 between 1919 and 1922. The new wings had an unusual planform with massive horn-balanced upper-wing ailerons of reduced chord and revised fin/rudder shape; armament was unchanged. The Bre 17 C2 remained in service until the mid-1920s.
     

    Attached Files:

  15. gekho

    gekho Active Member

    Joined:
    Jan 1, 2010
    Messages:
    2,816
    Likes Received:
    19
    Trophy Points:
    38
    Occupation:
    Lawyer
    Location:
    Spain
    Transferred by the SAF-Avions Dewoitine to the Liore-et- Olivier (LeO) concern owing to the workload imposed on the parent company by the D 50bis (future D 500), the D 37 (later D 370) was a private venture contender in the 1930 C1 programme. The prototype, flown on 1 October 1931, was powered by a 700hp Gnome- Rhone 14Kbrs Mistral Major 14-cylinder two-row radial. It was subsequently subjected to an extensive series of modifications: a G-R 14Kbs engine gave place, in turn, to a G-R 14Kds affording 800hp for take-off and 740hp at 4500m; the engine cowling was changed; the undercarriage was redesigned, and the wing introduced dihedral and reduced chord. Yet more redesign was embodied by a second prototype, the D 371, which appeared late February 1934. Twenty-eight D 371s were ordered for the Armee de l'Air with the G-R 14Kf s engine of 930hp for take-off and 880hp at 3250m, and an armament of four underwing 7.5mm MAC 34 machine guns. Fourteen were ordered by Lithuania, and these, having two synchronised 7.7mm Browning guns in the fuselage and two Darne guns of similar calibre in the wings, were designated D 372s. Twenty were ordered for the Aeronautique Navale as D 373s, these having flotation gear, an 30cm reduction in wing span and an armament of four Darne guns within the wing. A further 25 ordered for this service with aft-folding wings were designated as D 376s. The last D 371 left the factory at the end of December 1935, the Armee de l'Air fighters following the Navy's D 373s. The Lithuanian government meanwhile relinquished its D 372s in favour of D 501s, the former being sold to the Spanish Republican government and ferried to Spain during August 1936, where they were later joined by 10 of the 28 Armee de l'Air D 371s. The remaining D 371s equipped an escadrille at Bizerte, Tunis, until 1939, but were little flown owing to constant problems with their engines. The D 373s and D 376s of the Aeronautique Navale suffered similarly, and by September 1939, only 13 D 373s and nine D 376s were on strength, all being withdrawn before the year's end.

    Source: Dewoitine D 370 - fighter
     

    Attached Files:

  16. gekho

    gekho Active Member

    Joined:
    Jan 1, 2010
    Messages:
    2,816
    Likes Received:
    19
    Trophy Points:
    38
    Occupation:
    Lawyer
    Location:
    Spain
    The Hanriot H.43 was a military utility aircraft produced in France in the late 1920s and early 1930s which was primarily used by the Aéronautique Militaire as a trainer. While Hanriot had spent most of the 1920s manufacturing further and further developments of the HD.14 that had flown in 1920, the H.43 was an entirely new design. It was a conventional single-bay biplane with staggered wings of unequal span and a fuselage of fabric-covered metal tube. Accommodation for the pilot and passenger was in tandem, open cockpits and the main units of the fixed, tailskid undercarriage were linked by a cross-axle.

    Two prototypes in 1927 were followed by the LH.431 in 1928, a much-modified version that dispensed with the sweepback used on both the upper and lower wings of the H.43, had a new tail fin and added metal covering to the sides of the fuselage. This was ordered into production by the Aéronautique Militaire, which ordered 50 examples. These were slightly different again from the LH.431 prototype, having divided main undercarriage units, wings of slightly greater area, and redesigned interplane struts. Over the next six years, the Army would purchase nearly 150 examples for a variety of support roles including training, liaison, observation, and as an air ambulance. At the Fall of France in 1940, 75 of these aircraft remained in service.H.43 variants were also operated by civil flying schools in France, as well as 12 examples purchased for the military of Peru.

    Source: Hanriot H.43 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
     

    Attached Files:

  17. gekho

    gekho Active Member

    Joined:
    Jan 1, 2010
    Messages:
    2,816
    Likes Received:
    19
    Trophy Points:
    38
    Occupation:
    Lawyer
    Location:
    Spain
    Caudron C.60 was a French, two-seat biplane with a single engine and a canvas-covered fuselage of the 1920s and 1930s. The French aircraft manufacturer Caudron developed this aircraft from the Caudron C.59. It was mainly used as a trainer aircraft. The Caudron C.60 was used in France, Finland, Latvia, and in Venezuela.
     

    Attached Files:

  18. gekho

    gekho Active Member

    Joined:
    Jan 1, 2010
    Messages:
    2,816
    Likes Received:
    19
    Trophy Points:
    38
    Occupation:
    Lawyer
    Location:
    Spain
    Built to an official requirement of 1928 for a two-seat observation aircraft, the Breguet 270 was designed by a distinguished team led by Marcel Vuillerme and including Rene Dorand, Rene Leduc and Paul Deville. The prototype Bre.270.01 made its maiden flight on 23 February 1929 with Bucquet, chief Breguet test pilot, at the controls. A two-seat all-metal sesquiplane, it introduced a number of interesting design features. High-tensile steel replaced aluminium alloys, and the short fuselage, engine, lower wing and tail boom were all attached to a steel chassis, resulting in a very tough aircraft. Following early tests, the prototype was returned to the company's Velizy-Villacoublay workshops where the tail unit was redesigned with a more angular fin/rudder assembly and lower-set horizontal tail-plane. Nine further prototypes under the Bre.270/271 designations were completed, two of them being displayed at the 1930 Paris Salon de I'Aeronautique. Despite a rather poor overall performance, orders for a total of 85 Breguet 270s were received during 1930, all for the French Armee de I'Air. In 1932, an order was placed for 45 examples of the Breguet 271, powered by an engine delivering 112kW more than the original Hispano-Suiza 12Hb, and capable of lifting an increased useful load. Several Bre.270s were subsequently modified for VIP liaison duties, with a 'glasshouse' covering both cockpits.

    In 1932 the original prototype registered F-AJRC and fitted with a supplementary ventral fuel tank, made a longdistance flight across Africa to Madagascar. Besides small batches of Bre.270s bought by Brazil and Venezuela, 15 examples of the Breguet 273 reconnaissance-bomber development were exported to Venezuela and six to China. The Bre.273 prototype had flown in April 1934. Powered by a 641kW Hispano-Suiza 12Ybrs engine with a frontal radiator (all previous versions had 'chin' radiators), the Bre.273 had improved performance and bombload increased to 400kg.

    Experimental versions of the basic design included the Bre.272 TOE fitted with a radial engine, initially a Gnome-Rhone 9K and finally a Renault 9Fas, and the Bre.274 with a 567kW Gnome-Rhone 14K. The latter, intended as a bomber, was subsequently operated by sporting Frenchwoman Maryse Hilsz, who flew it to victory in the 1936 Coupe Helene Boucher contest, averaging 277km/h. A series of experimental Breguet 41 twin-engined biplanes, which shared the same 'chassis' and tailboom construction as the Breguet 270, met with initial success and secured an order for the Armee de I'Air, which intended them for the 'multiplace de combat' role, capable of fighting, bombing or reconnaissance. With the appearance of more promising rival designs, the order was cancelled before deliveries had commenced. On 1 January 1936 Bre.270s and Bre.271s were still in service in the French observation escadrilles. At the outbreak of World War II a number of Groupes Aeriens d'Observation (manned largely by reserve pilots) had Bre.27s on charge. These included GAOs 509, 543 and 547. A number of Bre.27s were shot down while on reconnaissance patrols across the Rhine before being withdrawn from service at the end of 1939.
     

    Attached Files:

  19. gekho

    gekho Active Member

    Joined:
    Jan 1, 2010
    Messages:
    2,816
    Likes Received:
    19
    Trophy Points:
    38
    Occupation:
    Lawyer
    Location:
    Spain
    #19 gekho, Jan 17, 2012
    Last edited: Jan 21, 2012
    The CAMS 37 was a flying boat built in France in the mid 1920s that was originally designed for military reconnaissance, but which found use in a wide variety of roles in a large number of versions. It was the first design for Chantiers Aéro-Maritimes de la Seine (CAMS) by the company's new head designer, Maurice Hurel. The prototype was displayed at the 1926 Salon de l'Aéronautique in Paris. The prototype first flew in 1926, and after testing was ordered into service before the end of the year. It was a conventional biplane flying boat very similar to previous CAMS designs, being driven by a pusher propeller whose engine was mounted on struts in the interplane gap. The first production version was the amphibious CAMS 37A that was bought by the French Navy, the Portuguese government, and the aeroclub of Martinique.

    The aircraft became something of a jack-of-all-trades for the French Navy, operating from every Naval Air Station and from many capital ships. Some of the type's most significant moments were trials conducted by Compagnie Générale Transatlantique on the SS Île de France to evaluate the feasibility of catapult-launched mailplanes for their transatlantic liners using two specially-built 37/10s. Another famous use of the aircraft was on René Guilbaud's long range flight through Africa and the Mediterranean between 12 October 1927 and 9 March 1927, venturing as far as Madagascar before returning to Marseille. In the course of the flight, he covered 22,600 km (14,000 mi) in 38 stages without incident.

    The CAMS 37 was gradually phased out of operational service in the mid to late 1930s, and by the time World War II started in September 1939, the aircraft had been relegated to training and communication roles. On mobilisation, however, CAMS 37/11 trainers were used by two units for coastal patrol, with one unit, Escadrille 2S2 continuing in service until August 1940. Outside mainland France, CAMS 37/11 trainers continued in use with a Free French unit in Tahiti until 15 January 1941, and with a Vichy France unit in Indochina until 1942.

    Source: CAMS 37 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
     

    Attached Files:

  20. vikingBerserker

    vikingBerserker Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Apr 10, 2009
    Messages:
    24,064
    Likes Received:
    655
    Trophy Points:
    113
    Occupation:
    Korporate Kontrolleur
    Location:
    South Carolina
Loading...

Share This Page