Foreign aircrafts in Japan

Discussion in 'Aircraft Pictures' started by gekho, Nov 5, 2010.

  1. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    #1 gekho, Nov 5, 2010
    Last edited: Nov 5, 2010
    Recently I found a very nice site of the Japanese Air Forces during the WWII with an extraordinary amount of pictures. Many of them were pictures of aircrafts that were evaluated, tested and, some of them, finally acquired during the 1930s. Many european and american prototypes were bought by the japanese to be used, copy or reproduced by its Air Forces. In this thread I will post pictures of these planes with japanese colours, some of them very rare, like a japanese Stuka or a Br.20 Cicogna. Enjoy them!!
     
  2. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    #2 gekho, Nov 5, 2010
    Last edited: Nov 5, 2010
    The Japanese military always interested in German aircraft production, were impressed by the offensive performance of the Stukas during the German invasion of Poland in September 1939; they bought two Ju-87 A-1 in 1940 (W.Nr. 870119 and 870120). The machine was painted in Japanese colours and production in Japan was considered for a time. But the Ju-87 A-1 was only used as a technological model. It was taken to bits and studied from all possible angles (the Japanese Navy's 'Val' used dive brakes copied entirely from the Ju-87's) before being reassembled and exhibited in the Tokorozawa Museum, near Tokyo. It was subsequently destroyed during an American air raid.
     

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  3. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    #3 gekho, Nov 5, 2010
    Last edited: Nov 5, 2010
    The Avro 504 was a World War I biplane aircraft made by the Avro aircraft company and under licence by others. Production during the War totalled 8,970 and continued for almost 20 years, making it the most-produced aircraft of any kind that served in World War I, in any military capacity, during that conflict. Over 10,000 would be built from 1913 to the time production ended in 1932. The japanese version was the Yokosuka K2Y1; a Avro 504N powered by a 130 hp (100 kW) Mitsubishi-built Armstrong-Siddeley Mongoose radial piston engine. 104 units were built. The Yokosuka K2Y2 was a improved version of the K2Y1, powered by a 160 hp (120 kW) Gasuden Jimpu 2 radial piston engine. 360 were built (K2Y1 and K2Y2).
     

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  4. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    #4 gekho, Nov 5, 2010
    Last edited: Nov 5, 2010
    In July 1937, when Japan entered into full scale war with China (the Second Sino-Japanese War), the Japanese Army Air Force found itself short of modern long-range bombers pending delivery of the Mitsubishi Ki-21 "Sally", which was undergoing prototype trials, and so required an interim purchase of aircraft from abroad. Italy was willing to give priority to any Japanese orders over its own requirements, and offered the Caproni Ca.135 and the BR.20. While the Caproni could not meet the Japanese requirements, the BR.20 closely matched the specification, and so an initial order was placed in late 1937 for 72 Br.20s, soon followed by an order for a further 10 aircraft.

    Deliveries to Manchuria commenced in February 1938, with the BR.20 (designated the I-Type (Yi-shiki)) replacing the obsolete Mitsubishi Ki-1, equipping two Air Wings (the 12th and 20th Sentai), which were heavily deployed on long-range bombing missions against Chinese cities and supply centres during the winter of 1938–39. The BR.20s were operating with no fighter cover at the extremes of their range and consequently incurred heavy losses from Chinese fighters, as did the early Ki-21s that shared the long-range bombing tasks. The fabric-covered surfaces were viewed as vulnerable, even if the main structure of this aircraft was noticeably robust. The aircraft had unsatisfactory range and defensive armament, but the first Ki-21s that entered service were not much better, except for their all-metal construction and the potential for further development when better engines became available (both types initially used two 746 kW/1,000 hp engines). The 12th Sentai was redeployed to the Mongolian-Manchurian border to fight in the Battle of Khalkhin Gol, but when this war ended, in September 1939, the BR.20s were progressively withdrawn and replaced by the Ki-21. Despite having been phased out from operational service, the BR.20 was allocated the Allied code name "Ruth".
     

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  5. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    The Dewoitine D.500 was an all-metal, open-cockpit, fixed-undercarriage monoplane fighter aircraft, used by the French Air Force in the 1930s. Introduced in 1936, the design was soon replaced by a new generation of fighter aircraft with enclosed cockpits and retractable undercarriage, including the 510's successor, the Dewoitine D.520. A single Dewoitine D.510 supplied to the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service for evaluation in 1935, receiving the name of AXD1.
     

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  6. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    #6 gekho, Nov 5, 2010
    Last edited: Nov 6, 2010
    It was soon recognized by the Aviation Militaire that not only were the A.R. 1's and A.R. 2's underpowered, but also the Sopwith 1A2 Strutters were both too fragile and carried an inadequate payload. In 1916, therefore, the Aviation Militaire established a requirement for a 2-seat reconnaissance machine capable of carrying a crew of two, several machine guns, and a wireless set. The Société des moteurs Salmson designed a biplane based on their knowledge gained from the production of the Sopwith machines.

    The Salmson 2 was powered by a 230 hp Salmson 9Za engine. The wings were of equal span with ailerons on both upper and lower wings. Armament consisted of a single fixed machine gun for the pilot and a twin machine gun configuration for the observer. The Salmson underwent STAé testing on 29 April 1917 and its performance was judged to be good. A production order was placed and eventually 3200 aircraft were manufactured. As the war progressed field modifications were carried out to allow the Salmson to carry 230 kg of bombs for ground attack duties.

    The AEF air service purchased 705 Salmson 2's. The first 18 were delivered in April 1918 and were used to replace A.R. 1's and Sopwith 1 ½ Strutters. Salmson 2's saw duty in the following 1st Army with: 1st Corps Observation Group {1st and 12th Observation Squadrons}; 3rd Corps Observation Group {88th and 90th Corps Observation Squadrons}; 5th Corps Observation Group (99th and 104th Observation Squadrons}; 7th Corps Observation Group {258th Corps Observation Squadron}; and the 1st Army Observation Group {24th and 91st Army Observation Squadrons}. In addition, the 167th Corps Observation Squadron of the 2nd Army Observation Group used the Salmson. The first Salmsons supplied to the 1st and 12th Aero Squadrons had a Lewis gun mounted on the upper wing. This position degraded performance so severely that they were removed. Some Salmsons were reequipped with a modified Lewis gun manufactured by the Savage Arms Co. Also, in some machines the pilot's Vickers gun was replaced by Marlin machine guns.
     

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  7. Gnomey

    Gnomey World Travelling Doctor
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    Good stuff!
     
  8. vikingBerserker

    vikingBerserker Well-Known Member

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    Great find and post, thanks!

    That Stuka was very interesting.
     
  9. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    More pics
     

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  10. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    #10 gekho, Nov 6, 2010
    Last edited: Nov 6, 2010
    When the DC-2 arrived on the scene in 1934, the Nakajima Company of Japan immediately showed an interest. Japan was building its industrial power, and it needed modern air transportation. This led Japan’s Nakajima Aircraft Company to open negotiations with the Douglas Aircraft Company. At the time, Japan was looking to replace its ageing Fokker Super Universals and trimotors, and the DC-2 caught their attention as it did elsewhere around the world.
     

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  11. Shinpachi

    Shinpachi Well-Known Member

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    Nice thread gekho.

    When those officially imported aircrafts were reproduced, they were done under the license.
    Even for the Hamilton propellers, Sumitomo Metal Industries paid all royalty after the war.
     
  12. Shinpachi

    Shinpachi Well-Known Member

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    #12 Shinpachi, Nov 6, 2010
    Last edited: Nov 6, 2010
    - deleted as double posted.
     
  13. vikingBerserker

    vikingBerserker Well-Known Member

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  14. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    #14 gekho, Nov 8, 2010
    Last edited: Nov 8, 2010
    The G.4 entered service with the French Aéronautique Militaire in November 1915. It was the first twin engined aircraft in service in any numbers with the French. The Caudron G.4 was used to carry out bombing raids deep behind the front line, being used to attack targets as far away as the Rhineland. Increasing losses led to its withdrawal from day bombing missions by the French in the autumn of 1916.

    The British Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) also used the G.4 as a bomber, receiving 55, of which twelve were licence built by the British Caudron company and the remainder supplied from France. Number 4 and 5 Wing RNAS using the G.4 for attacks against German seaplane and airship bases in Belgium. It was finally replaced in RNAS service by Handley Page O/100 aircraft in the autumn of 1917. Italian G.4s proved successful in operating in the mountainous Alpine fronts, where its good altitude capabilities proved useful. The G.4 was also used by the Imperial Russian Air Force for reconnaissance purposes.
     

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  15. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    The Heinkel He 70 was a German mail plane, passenger, liaison, training and bomber aircraft of the 1930s. Although useful, it had a relatively brief commercial career before it was replaced by types which could carry more passengers. As a combat aircraft, it was a not a great success because it rapidly became outdated. Nevertheless, the He 70 was a brilliant design for its day, setting no fewer than eight world speed records by the beginning of 1933. One single He 70 was delivered to the Empire of Japan for evaluation, resulting in the Aichi D3A "Val" light bomber of the IJN. Heinkel and the Empire would meet on such common ground on several more occasions before the war negated such exchange of ideas and technology.
     

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  16. Gnomey

    Gnomey World Travelling Doctor
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    Interesting shots!
     
  17. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    The Breguet 19 was designed as a successor to a highly-successful World War I light bomber, the XVII. Initially, it was designed to be powered by a 450 hp/335 kW Bugatti U-16 engine, driving a four-blade propeller, and such a prototype was shown on the 7th Paris Air Show in November 1921. A new design was flown in March 1922, featuring a conventional layout with a single 336 kW (450 hp) Renault 12Kb inline engine. The aircraft was built in a biplane platform, with shorter lower wings. After trials, the Breguet 19 was ordered by the French Air Force in September 1923. The first 11 Breguet 19 prototypes were powered by a number of different engines. A "trademark" of Breguet was the wide usage of duralumin as a construction material, instead of steel or wood. At that time, the aircraft was faster than other bombers, and even some fighter aircraft. Therefore, it met with a huge interest in the world, strengthened by its sporting successes. Mass production, for the French Air Force and export, started in France in 1924.

    In April 1925, the factory Nakajima Hikoki KK acquired two aircraft from the French Breguet 19 A2, was a versatile aircraft with long-range bombers. Purchase of two aircraft was the work of well-known promoter and promoter of aviation Asahi Shinbun newspaper group. By factory Nakajima Hikoki KK won two planes had been able to fairly detailed knowledge of aircraft structures. At the same time opened negotiations to purchase licensing rights to manufacture, these negotiations were successful. Licensed production will eventually be made, because the Imperial Army Air Force expressed interest in reconnaissance. Nakajima Hikoki KK then immediately changed the wheel all-metal chassis for two floats and the Naval Air Force offered him. The Navy, however, at that time began to receive new aircraft in this category Yokosho Type 14 and also reflected his interest. Nakajima Hikoki KK it still ranked in the competition, the Air Force has called for maritime reconnaissance aircraft with long-range, this contest was ultimately canceled because it failed to accurately formulate long range category. Some time this plane flew again with wheeled undercarriage and civilian designation J-BBFO as a post. Unlike the French Breguet was driven by a powerful engine Nakajima Loriane 2, the French had first Loriane.
     

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  18. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    The "Wal" was designed as a passenger flying boat for oceanic use and later found use as a military flying boat for patrol and search-and rescue duties. It featured a very rugged metal construction which made it ideal for long distance pioneering flights. Even the Norwegian polar explorer Roald Amundsen made use of this flying boat's great reliability and range during his expedition to the North Pole. Aircraft strong flat hull allowed reliable takeoff from ice and snow. Safe landing to the unprepared ground also was a possibility. First aircraft of "Wal" family took of on November 6, 1922 at Italy. Trial outcome was so impressive, that company immediately invested large capital into mass production. Actually, the Spanish Air Force ordered six boats even before a single Dornier Wal had been constructed. No more than a look at the blueprints was enough to convince customers!

    Until 1931 most of the production took place in Italy (Pisa) because all aviation activity in Germany was prohibited by the Treaty of Versailles after World War I. Special company (Costruzioni Meccaniche Aeronautiche S.A.) had been founded especially for the purpose. Later "Wal" was built by CASA in Spain, Kawasaki in Japan, Aviolanda in the Netherlands. In 1929 production started at the Dornier Company of America in the USA.
     

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  19. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    Developed from the successful Fokker F.VII, five of which were built in 1924-25, the Fokker F.VIIA flew on 12 March 1925 with a 298kW Packard Liberty engine. Following a demonstration tour of the United States, a number of orders were secured and further orders came from European operators. Almost 50 single-engined F.VIIAs were built, some of which were converted later to F.VIIA-3m standard with three engines. This variant, together with the slightly larger-span F.VIIB-3m, formed the backbone of many European airline operations in the early 1930s, with licence-production also being undertaken in Belgium, Italy, Poland and the UK.

    Although two F.VIIAs were supplied to the Royal Netherlands air force and one to the RAF, the only example known to have been used by the military in World War II was the 12th production F.VIIA which, after a chequered career in the Netherlands and Denmark, was presented to the Finnish Red Cross and operated in military markings in the Continuation War which began in 1941. Those operated by the Netherlands and Polish air forces were destroyed at an early stage of the German invasion of these two nations.
     

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  20. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    More pics
     

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