Spanish Civil War Nationalist Light Bombers and reconnaissance aircraft

Discussion in 'Between the wars 1918-1939' started by gekho, Mar 12, 2010.

  1. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    #1 gekho, Mar 12, 2010
    Last edited: Mar 13, 2010
    Twenty-eight aircraft were sent with the Legion Condor, where they were used during the Spanish Civil War as fast reconnaissance aircraft and light bomber. Their high speed gave them the nickname Rayo (lightning).
     

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  2. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    The Heinkel He 45 was a light bomber produced in Germany in the early 1930s, one of the first aircraft adopted by the newly-formed Luftwaffe. Its appearance was that of a conventional biplane and included seating for pilot and gunner in tandem, open cockpits. Developed in parallel with the He 46, it appeared in 1931 as a general-purpose biplane and was employed mainly as a trainer, but was also used by the Luftwaffe for reconnaissance and light bombing duties. Production of this plane totalled 512 aircraft, including those built under licence by Gotha, Focke-Wulf, and BFW.

    In November 1936 six were sent to Spain, where they equipped a Kette of A/88, operating alongside A/88's Heinkel He 70s. They remained in use in Spain until late 1938, when they were replaced by the Henschel Hs 126.
     

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  3. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    The Heinkel He 46 was a German World War II-era monoplane designed in 1931 for the close reconnaissance and army co-operation roles. While it served with the Luftwaffe's front-line units only briefly at the start of World War II, the He 46 served as late as 1943 as a nighttime nuisance bomber and with the Hungarian Air Force. By 1934, about 500 He 46s had been built, and, by 1936, the Luftwaffe's aerial reconnaissance wings were all equipped with the He 46. In September 1938, 20 He 46C-1s were given to the Spanish Nationalists for use in the Spanish Civil War.
     

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  4. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    The Henschel Hs 126 was a German two-seat reconnaissance and observation aircraft of World War II that was derived from the Henschel Hs 122. The pilot was seated in a protected cockpit under the parasol wing and the gunner in an open rear cockpit. The prototype aircraft frame was that of a Hs 122A fitted with a Junkers engine. The Hs 126 was well received for its good short takeoff and low-speed characteristics which were needed at the time. It was put into service for a few years, but was soon superseded by the general-purpose, STOL Fieseler Fi 156 Storch and the medium-range Focke-Wulf Fw 189 "flying eye".

    The first prototype was not entirely up to Luftwaffe standards; it was followed by two more development planes equipped with different engines. Following the third prototype, ten pre-production planes were built in 1937. The Hs 126 entered service in 1938 after operational evaluation with the Legion Kondor contingent to the Spanish Civil War.
     

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  5. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    The Heinkel He 60 was designed by Heinkel engineer Reinhold Mewes, the designer of the He 59.[1] The resulting design was a single-engined biplane of mixed wood and metal construction with fabric covering. Its single bay wings were of equal-span and had significant stagger. The first prototype flew early in 1933 and proved to be underpowered with its 492 kW (660 hp) BMW VI engine. The second prototype had a more powerful version of the BMW engine, but this only marginally improved its performance and was unreliable, so production aircraft reverted to the original engin
     

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  6. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    #6 gekho, Mar 12, 2010
    Last edited: Mar 19, 2010
    Of conventional configuration, the He 60 was a sturdy aircraft, designed (as the specification required) to be capable of operating on the open sea. As a result, it was always somewhat underpowered for its weight, which made handling sluggish and the aircraft vulnerable to enemy fire. Attempts were made to solve its lack of power by fitting one aircraft with a Daimler-Benz DB 600 engine, but engines were not available for production.

    Initial deliveries of the He 60 were to Kriegsmarine training units in June 1933. From 1934, the major production version, the He 60C began to be delivered to the shipboard floatplane units of the Kriegsmarine, operating from the catapults of all German cruisers. It also saw action with Spanish Nationalist forces during the Civil War.
     

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  7. FLYBOYJ

    FLYBOYJ "THE GREAT GAZOO"
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    OUTSTANDING!!!!
     
  8. Snautzer01

    Snautzer01 Well-Known Member

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  9. GrauGeist

    GrauGeist Well-Known Member

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    Really nice write-up on these machines, thanks!
     
  10. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    #10 gekho, Mar 12, 2010
    Last edited: Mar 19, 2010
    The Z.501 entered squadron service with the Regia Aeronautica in 1936, and by the time Italy entered World War II on 10 June 1940 more than 200 formed the equipment of at least 17 squadrons and four flights. The Z.501 's operational debut was with a unit of the Aviazione Legionaria, based in Majorca and operating in support of the Nationalist forces in the Spanish Civil War. A small number of Z.501s served with a coastal defence unit of the Romanian air force. A total of 454 was delivered before production ended in 1943.

    The Z.506B was first used as a reconnaissance/torpedo bomber in the Spanish Civil War. On the outbreak of World War II, 97 aircraft were operational with two Stormi da Bombardamento Marittimo (sea bombing units) and some Squadriglia da Ricognizione Marittima. One Stormo was based in Sardinia, the other in Brindisi. It was used extensively in 1940-41 in France and Greece. One of the most important operations was the battle of Punta Stilo. In the war against Greece it was used against coastal targets and the Corinth canal. It played an important part in the conquest of many Greek islands, including Corfu, Cephalonia and Zante. Due to its vulnerability against fighters, it was restricted to use by 'recce' units, such as the Squadriglie da Ricognizione. Later in the war, it was used in maritime patrol and air-sea rescue missions. The 506 was often forced to land in Spain, due to engine failure, combat damage or a lack of fuel.
     

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  11. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    Caproni pinned great hopes on the Ca. 310's effectiveness as a combat aircraft, only to be dashed when its performance fell short of expectations. This lack of performance resulted in both Norway and Hungary being disappointed with the export models they received in 1938. The Ca.310 had been evaluated by the Regia Aeronautica (Italian Air Force) which ordered a small batch. A unit of 16 aircraft was sent to Spain in July 1938 for operational trials as a reconnaissance/bomber by the Italian expeditionary force operating alongside the Nationalist insurgents in the Spanish Civil War.

    The CaproniĀ“s nickname was "Cabrones" (bastard in spanish), because both words sound very similar and also because the pilots used to say that the plain tried to kill them everytime they took off.
     

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  12. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    The Arado 95 was designed in 1935 as a two-seat seaplane, for coastal patrol, reconnaissance and light attack roles. The first prototype, an all-metal biplane powered by a BMW 132 radial engine, flew in 1936, while a second prototype was powered by a Junkers Jumo 210 liquid-cooled engine. The two prototypes were evaluated against the similar Focke-Wulf Fw 62. The BMW-powered version was considered worthy of further study, and a batch of six were sent for further evaluation with the Legion Condor during the Spanish Civil War. The Arado Ar 95 was the basis for the prototype Ar 195 carrier-based torpedo bomber, which was proposed for operation from the German aircraft carrier Graf Zeppelin.
     

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  13. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    The Ar 95 was not ordered by the German armed forces, and so was offered for export in two versions, the Ar 95W floatplane and Ar 95L landplane, with a fixed, spatted undercarriage. Six Ar 95Ls were ordered by the Chilean Air Force, being delivered prior to the start of World War II. Turkey placed an order for Ar 95Ws, but these were taken over by Germany on the outbreak of war. The requisitioned Ar 95s were designated by the Luftwaffe as the Ar 95A, and were used for training and for coastal reconnaissance operations in the Baltic Sea, operating off the coast of Latvia and Estonia in 1941, and in the Gulf of Finland. They continued operating until late 1944.
     

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  14. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    More pics
     

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  15. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    The Ro.37 also served in the Spanish Civil War, with the first ten arriving in late 1936. Another 26 (possibly 58) went to this theatre and were used for many missions and tasks. They were used as assault aircraft, even though they were unarmoured. The results were satisfactory and some were even converted to a single-seat machine for use as attack fighters. The two-seat versions were used as heavy fighters, providing protection for SM.81 bombers from Republican I-15s. It is not known if there were any air-to-air victories.

    The Ro.37 was generally liked by pilots, and the only complaint was that aircraft was prone to damage to the undercarriage, and had some engine faults. The aircraft was produced until 1939 with a total of 569 (237 + 332bis) produced, and as late as 1940 there were provisions to have 17 Squadron equipped with this machine. In fact, the Ro.37 continued to be used as reconnaissance aircraft for years, since its replacement, the Caproni Ca.311, proved unsatisfactory.

    Ro.37 were also quite widely exported (ten to Uruguay, sixteen to Afghanistan, fourteen to Hungary, eight to Austria, and one to Ecuador) and around 280 were in service in 1940, in thirty squadrons consisting of 215 aircraft. Some were in service up to 1943 and perhaps even later. They were very vulnerable, but in the war Italy did not have sufficient resources to produce a better observation aircraft, not even the Ro.63, a superior aircraft, similar to the Storch, but with more endurance.
     

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  16. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    In 1927, the Regia Marina (Italian Royal Navy) held a contest for a replacement for the Macchi M.7ter flying boat fighter. In response, Macchi designed the M.41, based on its Macchi M.26 design of 1924. The M.41 was a wooden, single-seat, single-bay biplane armed with two fixed, forward-firing 7.7-millimeter (0.303-inch) machine guns. It had plywood and fabric skinning, and its wings were of equal span and unstaggered. Its engine, a 313-kilowatt (420-horsepower) Fiat A.20 driving a pusher propeller, was mounted on struts above the hull and below the upper wing, and the aircraft was fitted with an oblique frontal radiator. Like the M.26, it was of very clean aerodynamic design for an aircraft of its type.

    In the 1927 contest, the M.41 prototype competed against the SIAI S.58bis. Macchi received no production order for the M.41 and built only the first prototype. Although plans were made for SIAI to produce 97 S.58bis aircraft, these fell through when the Regia Marina decided to save money by re-engining the M.7ter rather than procure any new replacement aircraft in 1927.

    Some units were still operational when the Spanish Civil War broke out.
     

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  17. wheelsup_cavu

    wheelsup_cavu Well-Known Member

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  18. Thorlifter

    Thorlifter Well-Known Member

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    I agree with others. Nice job on the write ups and posting the pics.
     
  19. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    #19 gekho, Mar 19, 2010
    Last edited: May 7, 2010
    Originally designated the M 37, the aircraft was designed as a four-seat sports/recreation aircraft for competition in the 4th Challenge de Tourisme Internationale (1934). The M 37 prototype flew first in spring 1934 powered by a 250 PS (247 hp, 184 kW) Hirth HM 8U inverted-V engine, which drove a three-blade propeller. Although it was outclassed by lighter aircraft in the competition, the M 37's performance marked it as a popular choice for record flights. One of the first major changes made to the production variants was to adapt the fuselage for a four-seat configuration. The Bf 108A first flew in 1934, followed by the Bf 108B in 1935. The Bf 108B used the Argus As 10 air-cooled inverted V8 engine. The nickname Taifun (German for "typhoon") was given to her own aircraft by Elly Beinhorn, a well known German pilot, and was generally adopted.
     

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  20. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    The Fairchild 91, later redesignated A-942, was a small flying boat airliner developed in the United states in the mid-1930s. Fairchild designed the aircraft in response to a Pan Am request for a small flying boat to operate on their river routes along the Amazon and Yangtze. The result was a conventional high-wing cantilever monoplane with its radial engine mounted above the wing in a streamlined nacelle. Before construction of the prototype was complete, however, Pan Am no longer required the aircraft to operate in China, and Fairchild modified the design to optimise it for the tropical conditions of Brazil.

    After the first two aircraft were delivered, Pan Am cancelled the remaining four aircraft on its order, discovering that the two aircraft they had already purchased were capable of handling their entire Amazon River demand; the Model 91 had become a victim of its own success. Fairchild completed the other four airframes under the designation A-942, selling two to private owners, and exporting the other two to Japan. One of the private owners was naturalist Richard Archbold, who used it on his second expedition to New Guinea in 1936-37. The prototype was sold to the Spanish Republican Air Force, but was captured by the Spanish Nationalists and was used by them until 1938. One of the privately-owned A-942s served with the RAF in Egypt for a time.
     

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