USSR Aircraft weapons

Discussion in 'Weapons Systems Tech.' started by CharlesBronson, Jun 26, 2008.

  1. CharlesBronson

    CharlesBronson Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Jan 11, 2005
    Messages:
    3,822
    Likes Received:
    66
    Trophy Points:
    48
    Gender:
    Male
    Occupation:
    Metalurgic Technician
    Location:
    Cordoba - Argentina
    #1 CharlesBronson, Jun 26, 2008
    Last edited: Jul 13, 2009
    With the same accuracy and the same cocky attitude as "Luftwaffe cannons and machineguns..." I will deal this time with the armament of soviet russian flying machines.

    VYa-23

    [​IMG]
     
  2. Aaron Brooks Wolters

    Aaron Brooks Wolters Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Jul 28, 2007
    Messages:
    15,723
    Likes Received:
    339
    Trophy Points:
    83
    Gender:
    Male
    Occupation:
    Auto Restoration
    Location:
    Abingdon, VA.
    CB, I don't know if it is my computer or not but I have not been able to view any of your posted photos. Is it the format? If so let me know what you are using. Sorry to bother you, Just like to see what everyone else is raving about. Many thanks. Brooks.:oops:
     
  3. CharlesBronson

    CharlesBronson Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Jan 11, 2005
    Messages:
    3,822
    Likes Received:
    66
    Trophy Points:
    48
    Gender:
    Male
    Occupation:
    Metalurgic Technician
    Location:
    Cordoba - Argentina
    Shkas 7,62mm MG.

    [​IMG]

    The ShKAS (Shpitalny-Komaritski Aviatsionny Skorostrelnij, Shpitalny-Komaritski rapid fire machine gun for aircraft ) is a 7.62 mm machine gun widely used by Soviet aircraft in the 1930s and during World War II. It was designed by Boris Shpitalniy and Irinarkh Komaritsky and entered production in 1934. ShKAS was used in the majority of Soviet fighters and bombers and served as the basis for the ShVAK cannon.

    The Shkas appeared for the first time as prototype in 1933 under the name code of "objekt 432" and soon as KM-33, due to the extremely high rate of firing the design in principle like defensive weapon handled by an gunner, but eventually was also adapted for wing and sinchronizated emplacements.

    KM-33.

    [​IMG]

    ShKAS is a gas-operated machine gun. The high rate of fire is achieved thanks to the revolving 10-chamber drum fed by metal disintegrating link ammunition belt, In order to obtain a cadence superior ingenious system of combined feeding drum-metallic linked ammunition. The process keep the cartrigde case always axial to the barrel until the moment it was introduced in the chamber.

    Initial production consisted of cable-charged wing-mounted and turret-mounted ShKAS with a synchronized version entering service in 1936.

    [​IMG]

    Rate of fire could be adjusted choosing three types of diameters of gas passage hole ( 3mm, 3,5 m and 4,2 mm) that gave as result 1500, 1800, and 1950 shots per minute. Typically the gun was set in 1800 rpm.

    A one-second burst from four ShKAS in Polikarpov I-153 or Polikarpov I-16 placed 120 bullets within 15 angular mils at 400 meters (1,312 feet) giving a firing density of 5 bullets per square meter of the sky. This was significantly higher than contemporary aircraft from other nations, especially considering that four guns with 650 rounds of ammunition per gun weighed a total of only 160 kg (350 lb).

    Two remote controlled ShKas at the rear of Il-2.

    [​IMG]
     
  4. CharlesBronson

    CharlesBronson Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Jan 11, 2005
    Messages:
    3,822
    Likes Received:
    66
    Trophy Points:
    48
    Gender:
    Male
    Occupation:
    Metalurgic Technician
    Location:
    Cordoba - Argentina
    You mean in this section ? the pictures are in imageshack so probably is a trouble of that server.
    Aniway tell me what pictures you need and Ill see If I can upload to other server , even I dont think anyother is more reliable than imageshack.
     
  5. CharlesBronson

    CharlesBronson Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Jan 11, 2005
    Messages:
    3,822
    Likes Received:
    66
    Trophy Points:
    48
    Gender:
    Male
    Occupation:
    Metalurgic Technician
    Location:
    Cordoba - Argentina
    Characteristics of the Shkas:

    [​IMG]

    Type of action: gas operated, sliding breech (berthier type)

    Overall lenght: 810 mm

    Barrel lenght: 585 mm

    Loaded weight: 11,35 kg.

    Grooves: 4, one turn in 254 m, right twist

    Charging: By hand

    Rate of fire: variable, 1500 to 2000 rpm.

    2 Shkas in Mig-3 Nose, the rate of fire of the sinchronizated variant was about 1250rpm. Note the heating jacket to avoid freezing at high altitude.

    [​IMG]


    Nose gun in Archangelskij Ar-2 bomber.

    [​IMG]

    Wing emplacement in Sukhoi Su-2.

    [​IMG]
     
  6. Juha

    Juha Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Jan 8, 2007
    Messages:
    3,734
    Likes Received:
    65
    Trophy Points:
    48
    Location:
    Helsinki
    Thanks Bronson
    I had seen some of the photos before but most were new to me and very intersting they are

    Juha
     
  7. CharlesBronson

    CharlesBronson Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Jan 11, 2005
    Messages:
    3,822
    Likes Received:
    66
    Trophy Points:
    48
    Gender:
    Male
    Occupation:
    Metalurgic Technician
    Location:
    Cordoba - Argentina
    You re welcome. some more.

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    The ShKas used a special marcaged 7,62x54R high pressure ammunition not suitable for use in normal rifles like the Tokarev or Moisin Nagat.

    I mean not suitable because if you mixed it you might end with the bolt of the Mosin Nagant inserted in the skull. :twisted:

    [​IMG]
     
  8. Tony Williams

    Tony Williams Member

    Joined:
    Nov 8, 2004
    Messages:
    273
    Likes Received:
    0
    Trophy Points:
    16
    Occupation:
    Freelance gun and ammunition writer and editor
    Home Page:
    Don't forget that the "Ultra ShKAS" also saw service, with the rate of fire boosted to 2,700 rpm.
     
  9. CharlesBronson

    CharlesBronson Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Jan 11, 2005
    Messages:
    3,822
    Likes Received:
    66
    Trophy Points:
    48
    Gender:
    Male
    Occupation:
    Metalurgic Technician
    Location:
    Cordoba - Argentina
    This is the info i got about that weapon:

    Ultra ShKas.

    As if the Shkas high rate of fire wasnt enough the russian technicians sought the way to increase it even more, probably for use in defensive emplacements.

    [​IMG]

    The outcoming gun was the Ultra Shkas, the rate of fire was considerabely increased due a enlargement is the gas hole dameter.
    That gave a tremendous 2700 rpm rate :shock: .

    In order to withstand the large amount of heat a heavier thicker barrel was used with a cooling jacket.

    However the high rate gave some troubles in feeding and reliability, that caused the Shkas wasnt manufactured and used in large numbers.
    The weight of this gun excedees 16 kg.

    -------------------------


    I had that pic saved in the hard disk for a while, I think I extracted it from some part of your website.
     
  10. Micdrow

    Micdrow “Archive”
    Staff Member Moderator

    Joined:
    Aug 21, 2006
    Messages:
    7,715
    Likes Received:
    424
    Trophy Points:
    83
    Occupation:
    Manufacture Tech
    Location:
    Wisconsin
    Very interesting stuff there Charles, keep it up. Soviet aircraft weapons and such are alot harder to find info on. Then again I dont have alot of info on Soviet stuff compaired to other countries in my library.

    Great job!!!!
     
  11. CharlesBronson

    CharlesBronson Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Jan 11, 2005
    Messages:
    3,822
    Likes Received:
    66
    Trophy Points:
    48
    Gender:
    Male
    Occupation:
    Metalurgic Technician
    Location:
    Cordoba - Argentina
    Thank you very much, and no worry, I will continue. The guns are less know that is for sure but still I ve found interesting material wich was translated from russian to spanish an then in english...now.

    The only I ve found hard to find is the 23 mm defensive weapons and revolver cannons of 1960s until 1980.

    But note the ending date I ve choose, so until that year I pretty much cover with the info...no stupid guy at all uh? :p
     
  12. CharlesBronson

    CharlesBronson Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Jan 11, 2005
    Messages:
    3,822
    Likes Received:
    66
    Trophy Points:
    48
    Gender:
    Male
    Occupation:
    Metalurgic Technician
    Location:
    Cordoba - Argentina
    ShVak heavy MG 12,7mm.

    The early years of 1930s were characterized by the great qualitative jump in the development of the military aviation. It substantially increased the speed, weight and payload, thus also the resistance of combat aircrafts.

    In connection with this the 9 of February of 1931 the Soviet High Command decided that was needed a new machine gun caliber 12,7mm to combat against the recent generation of fighters and bombers. Responding to this requirement it is born the ShVak, Shpitalny Vladimirov Aviatsionny Krupnokalibr, Aeronautic Weapon of Shpitalny and Vladimirov heavy caliber.

    [​IMG]

    The prototype of the machine gun was finished in Tula the 28th May 1932.

    The principle of the operation by means of gas energy with a piston operating the opening of the sliding bolt. It was basically an enlarged Shkas.
    Length of the gun was 1246 millimeters , it had 8 grooves right twist, overall lenght 1726 millimeters.
    Rate of fire a 820-850 rpm. It was proposed to be adopted in three versions, wing, sinchro and turret emplacements.
    In 1932 - 1933 the machine gun underwent tests and in 1934 of I declare apt to enter in good condition. Nevertheless the enthusiasm of the VVS with the new weapon was short lived.

    The ShVak of 12,7mm showed a series of disadvantages such as:

    - Excessively high Number of mechanical failures, not only that but also sometimes to clear a jam in the weapon has to be completely disarmed in its feeding mechanism and/or including the conductive drum of the cartridge belt… wich obviously a task impossible to perform in actual combat.

    - Excessive number of mechanized pieces, the number of component was greater due to the modifications realised by Vladimirov to the Shkas to accept the larger caliber case.

    - Expensive Construction, for the same reasons above.

    - Non standard Ammunition, the worsest from the Soviet point of view.

    The Shvak did not use the conventional ammunition of 12.7 but one specially designed 12,7mm x 108R, the R obvious indicates the presence of a rim, this was necessary since the system of Shpitalny did not adapt to the cartridges with extraction groove. (rimless case)
    All these reasons caused that its fabrication was very limited. In the year of 1934 only 12 issues were constructed and 86 the following year, finally it was decided to give up with this weapon in favour of a heavier 20mm variant.

    The standardized weapon of aviation in caliber the 12.7 shall be the Universaly Berezin that used the cartridge DShk 1934. The production of of Shvak 12.7 mm finalize definitively in 1936.
     
  13. CharlesBronson

    CharlesBronson Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Jan 11, 2005
    Messages:
    3,822
    Likes Received:
    66
    Trophy Points:
    48
    Gender:
    Male
    Occupation:
    Metalurgic Technician
    Location:
    Cordoba - Argentina
    Ammunition for ShVak 12,7 mm.

    [​IMG]

    Two pictures of the 12,7x108 rimmed cartrigde, the armor piercing tracer BZT projectile had a muzzle speed of 825 m/s, it could pierce 13mm homogeneous steel plate at 350 meters.

    [​IMG]

    The endurance of tracer element was 3 seconds, enough for 1500-1600
    meters.
     
  14. Micdrow

    Micdrow “Archive”
    Staff Member Moderator

    Joined:
    Aug 21, 2006
    Messages:
    7,715
    Likes Received:
    424
    Trophy Points:
    83
    Occupation:
    Manufacture Tech
    Location:
    Wisconsin
    Interesting Charles, Any idea on what material the bullet was made out of to make it armor piercing? From the look of the picture it looks like the tip is brass. I would think it would have to be a heavier material than that to be armor piercing but then again I know next to nothing on ammuntion.
     
  15. wilbur1

    wilbur1 Active Member

    Joined:
    Nov 4, 2007
    Messages:
    2,206
    Likes Received:
    0
    Trophy Points:
    36
    Occupation:
    Mechanik
    Location:
    Escondido,Ca
    Actually micdraw it is brass, it helps the bullet go done the bore alot easier without wearing it out. What made it armour peircing is inside. it would be lead wrapped around a smaller bullet made of tungsten or similar material
     
  16. Micdrow

    Micdrow “Archive”
    Staff Member Moderator

    Joined:
    Aug 21, 2006
    Messages:
    7,715
    Likes Received:
    424
    Trophy Points:
    83
    Occupation:
    Manufacture Tech
    Location:
    Wisconsin
    That makes sense Wilbur, thanks.
     
  17. Milos Sijacki

    Milos Sijacki Member

    Joined:
    Nov 9, 2006
    Messages:
    434
    Likes Received:
    1
    Trophy Points:
    18
    Occupation:
    student
    Location:
    Serbia
    Thanks for those photos and the info. I really liked it.
     
  18. CharlesBronson

    CharlesBronson Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Jan 11, 2005
    Messages:
    3,822
    Likes Received:
    66
    Trophy Points:
    48
    Gender:
    Male
    Occupation:
    Metalurgic Technician
    Location:
    Cordoba - Argentina

    Indeed, it have a brass jacket with hardened steel core, a image worth thousand words.

    [​IMG]


    If the bullet jacket would be made of steel it would destroy the barrel rifling in few shot, even fair is to say the germans ( who else ?) experimented with 9 and 7,92 mm very soft iron jackets for small arms ammunition in 1944-45 given the drastic lack of copper one of the component of brass.

    Nice, stay tuned, they will continue.
     
  19. Haztoys

    Haztoys Member

    Joined:
    Dec 1, 2005
    Messages:
    501
    Likes Received:
    0
    Trophy Points:
    16
    Location:
    Prescott Arizona USA
    Great stuff ...CB
     
  20. CharlesBronson

    CharlesBronson Well-Known Member

    Joined:
    Jan 11, 2005
    Messages:
    3,822
    Likes Received:
    66
    Trophy Points:
    48
    Gender:
    Male
    Occupation:
    Metalurgic Technician
    Location:
    Cordoba - Argentina
    Preciated.

    Berezin UB heavy MG 12,7mm.

    [​IMG]

    In 1937 M. Y. Berezin began to project powerful 12,7 mm synchronous aircraft machine gun with the cartridge from 12,7 mm of infantry machine gun Degtyarev Shpagin DSHK 38.
    During October/December of 1938 synchronous machine gun successfully underwent plant and range tests. On 12 April, 1939, there was some troop tests 12,7 mm machine gun BS (Berezin synchronous) by the decision of the committee of defense was neglected into the series production. 12,7 mm the machine gun Of berezina on the ring mount VUB-E in the assault aircraft IL-2.

    The machinegun was gas operated with wedge locking system
    The characteristic property of its device was the supply of ammunition belt not with the recoil of moving elements as in the overwhelming majority of machine guns, but with their counterrecoil, i.e. of the return spring of machine gun.

    For the required reliability of belt feed return spring was made multiple-wire.

    The merits of the Berezin machine gun included:

    - Successful layout of entire automatism and separate mechanisms;

    - High rate of fire

    - Simple loading

    - A comparatively small number of components and simple mechanism.

    In spite of all its positive qualities, machine gun BS possessed some serious deficiencies. The difficulty of its recharging in air with the aid of the cable system, which required of the pilot of large physical efforts into the most decisive minutes of battle especially was shown; the defects, connected with the insufficient vitality of the separate parts of automation, appeared; they required the elimination of the reason for the appearance of some delays.

    Working at further improvement of his system for purposes of the solution of these deficiencies and creation of general-purpose machine gun for its application at the basic weapon emplacements of all machine guns, M. ye. berezin developed general-purpose machine gun UB (universal Berezina) in three versions depending on site of installation - turret, wing and synchronous

    UBT
    UBK
    UBS

    [​IMG]

    Basic details and mechanisms of all three versions of machine gun were preserved, with exception of the trigger and percussion devices, into which were introduced some changes, connected with the specific character of their application.

    In the synchronous (UBS) and wing (UBK) versions was realized remote control of the system of recharge in the case of the appearance of delays in the shooting in air with the use of the compressed air.

    This was the first in the Soviet aviation system of the pneumatic recharging of machine gun, which considerably facilitated its operation in field conditions. In connection with the impossibility to use pneumatic recharge on the turret machine gun (UBT) because of the overall sizes of emplacement designer G. I. Nikitin developed for it retracting handle lever type. In the course of tests the machine gun UB worked smoothly even at the 9000 meters in altitude height , it continued to shoot in steep turns, chandelles, loops and dives.

    Weight of the machine gun UB in the synchronous version 21,45 kg, wing 21,14 kg, turret 21,43 kg.

    Rate of fire in the synchronous version 700 - 800 rp./min, wing and turret 900-1050 rp/min.

    From 7 January through 22 February 1941, the machine gun Berezin successfully underwent troop tests.

    UBT, Ilyushin il-2M

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

    On 22 April, 1941, the general-purpose machine gun of Berezin was accepted into the armament of VVS. 12,7 mm machine gun UB ripened in time, since the war begun in two months revealed the ineffectiveness of 7.62-mm aircraft machine guns in aerial gunnery. The production of machine guns UB was conducted on Tula weapons and Izhevsk the Machine Building Plants. In 1941 were released 6300 machine guns UB, in 1943 43690, in 1944 38340, 42952 in the year 1945.

    The synchronous machine UBS was used on the fighters I -15, I -153BS, Yak-1b, Yak-3, Yak-7b, Yak-9, MiG-3 and LaGG-3. The turret machine gun UBT was established on the bombers SB, P -2, Yer-2, Il-2, Tu-2, Il-4 and Pe -8.

    UBS in Yak-9 .

    [​IMG]
     
Loading...

Share This Page