40th Anniversary of The Six Day War

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The Pop-Tart Whisperer
Feb 19, 2007
Southern New Jersey
The 1967 Six-Day War

The 1967 Six-Day War
by Mitchell Bard

Israel consistently expressed a desire to negotiate with its neighbors. In an address to the UN General Assembly on October 10, 1960, Foreign Minister Golda Meir challenged Arab leaders to meet with Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion to negotiate a peace settlement. Nasser answered on October 15, saying that Israel was trying to deceive world opinion, and reiterating that his country would never recognize the Jewish State.

The Arabs were equally adamant in their refusal to negotiate a separate settlement for the refugees. As Nasser told the United Arab Republic National Assembly March 26, 1964:

Israel and the imperialism around us, which confront us, are two separate things. There have been attempts to separate them, in order to break up the problems and present them in an imaginary light as if the problem of Israel is the problem of the refugees, by the solution of which the problem of Palestine will also be solved and no residue of the problem will remain. The danger of Israel lies in the very existence of Israel as it is in the present and in what she represents.

The Palestinian Army
In 1963, the Arab League decided to introduce a new weapon in its war against Israel — the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). The PLO formally came into being during a 1964 meeting of the first Palestinian Congress. Shortly thereafter, the group began to splinter into various factions. Ultimately, the largest faction, Fatah, would come to dominate the organization, and its leader, Yasser Arafat, would become the PLO chairman and most visible symbol. All the groups adhered to a set of principles laid out in the Palestine National Charter, which called for Israel's destruction.

The PLO's belligerent rhetoric was matched by deeds. Terrorist attacks by the group grew more frequent. In 1965, 35 raids were conducted against Israel. In 1966, the number increased to 41. In just the first four months of 1967, 37 attacks were launched. The targets were always civilians.

Most of the attacks involved Palestinian guerillas infiltrating Israel from Jordan, the Gaza Strip, and Lebanon. The orders and logistical support for the attacks were coming, however, from Cairo and Damascus. Egyptian President Nasser's main objective was to harass the Israelis, but a secondary one was to undermine King Hussein's regime in Jordan.

King Hussein viewed the PLO as both a direct and indirect threat to his power. Hussein feared that the PLO might try to depose him with Nasser's help or that the PLO's attacks on Israel would provoke retaliatory strikes by Israeli forces that could weaken his authority. By the beginning of 1967, Hussein had closed the PLO's offices in Jerusalem, arrested many of the group's members, and withdrew recognition of the organization. Nasser and his friends in the region unleashed a torrent of criticism on Hussein for betraying the Arab cause. Hussein would soon have the chance to redeem himself.

Terror from the Heights
The breakup of the U.A.R. and the resulting political instability only made Syria more hostile toward Israel. Another major cause of conflict was Syria's resistance to Israel's creation of a National Water Carrier to take water from the Jordan River to supply the country. The Syrian army used the Golan Heights, which tower 3,000 feet above the Galilee, to shell Israeli farms and villages. Syria's attacks grew more frequent in 1965 and 1966, forcing children living on kibbutzim in the Huleh Valley to sleep in bomb shelters. Israel repeatedly protested the Syrian bombardments to the UN Mixed Armistice Commission, which was charged with policing the cease-fire, but the UN did nothing to stop Syria's aggression — even a mild Security Council resolution expressing "regret" for such incidents was vetoed by the Soviet Union. Meanwhile, Israel was condemned by the United Nations when it retaliated.

While the Syrian military bombardment and terrorist attacks intensified, Nasser's rhetoric became increasingly bellicose. In 1965, he announced, "We shall not enter Palestine with its soil covered in sand; we shall enter it with its soil saturated in blood."

Again, a few months later, Nasser expressed the Arabs' aspiration: "[el] the full restoration of the rights of the Palestinian people. In other words, we aim at the destruction of the state of Israel. The immediate aim: perfection of Arab military might. The national aim: the eradication of Israel."

Syria's attacks on Israeli kibbutzim from the Golan Heights finally provoked a retaliatory strike on April 7, 1967. During the attack, Israeli planes shot down six Syrian fighter planes — MiGs supplied by the Soviet Union. Shortly thereafter, the Soviets — who had been providing military and economic assistance to both Syria and Egypt — gave Damascus false information alleging a massive Israeli military buildup in preparation for an attack. Despite Israeli denials, Syria decided to invoke its defense treaty with Egypt and asked Nasser to come to its aid.

Countdown to War
On May 15, Israel's Independence Day, Egyptian troops began moving into the Sinai and massing near the Israeli border. By May 18, Syrian troops were prepared for battle along the Golan Heights.

Nasser ordered the UN Emergency Force (UNEF), stationed in the Sinai since 1956 as a buffer between Israeli and Egyptian forces after Israel's withdrawal following the Sinai Campaign, to withdraw on May 16. Without bringing the matter to the attention of the General Assembly (as his predecessor had promised), Secretary-General U Thant complied with the demand. After the withdrawal of the UNEF, the Voice of the Arabs radio station proclaimed on May 18, 1967:

As of today, there no longer exists an international emergency force to protect Israel. We shall exercise patience no more. We shall not complain any more to the UN about Israel. The sole method we shall apply against Israel is total war, which will result in the extermination of Zionist existence.

An enthusiastic echo was heard May 20 from Syrian Defense Minister Hafez Assad:

Our forces are now entirely ready not only to repulse the aggression, but to initiate the act of liberation itself, and to explode the Zionist presence in the Arab homeland. The Syrian army, with its finger on the trigger, is united....I, as a military man, believe that the time has come to enter into a battle of annihilation.

The Blockade
On May 22, Egypt closed the Straits of Tiran to all Israeli shipping and all ships bound for Eilat. This blockade cut off Israel's only supply route with Asia and stopped the flow of oil from its main supplier, Iran.

In 1956, the United States gave Israel assurances that it recognized the Jewish State's right of access to the Straits of Tiran. In 1957, at the UN, 17 maritime powers declared that Israel had a right to transit the Strait. Moreover, the blockade violated the Convention on the Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone, which was adopted by the UN Conference on the Law of the Sea on April 27, 1958.

President Johnson expressed the belief that the blockade was illegal and unsuccessfully tried to organize an international flotilla to test it. At the same time, he advised the Israelis not to take any military action. After the war, he acknowledged the closure of the Strait of Tiran was the casus belli (June 19, 1967):

If a single act of folly was more responsible for this explosion than any other it was the arbitrary and dangerous announced decision that the Strait of Tiran would be closed. The right of innocent maritime passage must be preserved for all nations.

Nasser was aware of the pressure he was exerting to force Israel's hand, and challenged Israel to fight almost daily. The day after the blockade was set up, he said defiantly: "The Jews threaten to make war. I reply: Welcome! We are ready for war."

Nasser challenged Israel to fight almost daily. "Our basic objective will be the destruction of Israel. The Arab people want to fight," he said on May 27. The following day, he added: "We will not accept any...coexistence with Israel...Today the issue is not the establishment of peace between the Arab states and Israel....The war with Israel is in effect since 1948."

King Hussein of Jordan signed a defense pact with Egypt on May 30. Nasser then announced:

The armies of Egypt, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon are poised on the borders of Israel...to face the challenge, while standing behind us are the armies of Iraq, Algeria, Kuwait, Sudan and the whole Arab nation. This act will astound the world. Today they will know that the Arabs are arranged for battle, the critical hour has arrived. We have reached the stage of serious action and not declarations.

President Abdur Rahman Aref of Iraq joined in the war of words: "The existence of Israel is an error which must be rectified. This is our opportunity to wipe out the ignominy which has been with us since 1948. Our goal is clear -- to wipe Israel off the map." On June 4, Iraq joined the military alliance with Egypt, Jordan and Syria.

The Arab rhetoric was matched by the mobilization of Arab forces. Approximately 465,000 troops, more than 2,800 tanks, and 800 aircraft ringed Israel.
By this time, Israeli forces had been on alert for three weeks. The country could not remain fully mobilized indefinitely, nor could it allow its sea lane through the Gulf of Aqaba to be interdicted. Israel decided to preempt the expected Arab attack. To do this successfully, Israel needed the element of surprise. Had it waited for an Arab invasion, Israel would have been at a potentially catastrophic disadvantage. On June 5, Prime Minister Eshkol gave the order to attack Egypt.

The U.S. Position
The United States tried to prevent the war through negotiations, but it was not able to persuade Nasser or the other Arab states to cease their belligerent statements and actions. Still, right before the war, Johnson warned: "Israel will not be alone unless it decides to go alone." Then, when the war began, the State Department announced: "Our position is neutral in thought, word and deed."

Moreover, while the Arabs were falsely accusing the United States of airlifting supplies to Israel, Johnson imposed an arms embargo on the region (France, Israel's other main arms supplier also embargoed arms to Israel).

By contrast, the Soviets were supplying massive amounts of arms to the Arabs. Simultaneously, the armies of Kuwait, Algeria, Saudi Arabia and Iraq were contributing troops and arms to the Egyptian, Syrian and Jordanian fronts.

On June 5, 1967, Israel was indeed alone, but its military commanders had conceived a brilliant war strategy. The entire Israeli Air Force, with the exception of just 12 fighters assigned to defend Israeli air space, took off at 7:14 a.m. with the intent of bombing Egyptian airfields while the Egyptian pilots were eating breakfast. In less than 2 hours, roughly 300 Egyptian aircraft were destroyed. A few hours later, Israeli fighters attacked the Jordanian and Syrian air forces, as well as one airfield in Iraq. By the end of the first day, nearly the entire Egyptian and Jordanian air forces, and half the Syrians', had been destroyed on the ground.

The battle then moved to the ground, and some of history's greatest tank battles were fought between Egyptian and Israeli armor in the blast-furnace conditions of the Sinai desert.

Jerusalem Is Attacked
Prime Minister Levi Eshkol sent a message to King Hussein on June 5 saying Israel would not attack Jordan unless he initiated hostilities. When Jordanian radar picked up a cluster of planes flying from Egypt to Israel, and the Egyptians convinced Hussein the planes were theirs, he ordered the shelling of West Jerusalem. It turned out that the planes were Israel's and were returning from destroying the Egyptian air force on the ground.

It took only three days for Israeli forces to defeat the Jordanian legion. On the morning of June 7, the order was given to recapture the Old City. Israeli paratroopers stormed the city and secured it. Defense Minister Moshe Dayan arrived with Chief of Staff Yitzhak Rabin to formally mark the Jews' return to their historic capital and their holiest site. At the Western Wall, the IDF's chaplain, Rabbi Shlomo Goren, blew a shofar to celebrate the event.

A Second Exodus
After Jordan launched its attack on June 5, approximately 325,000 Palestinians living in the West Bank fled to other parts of Jordan, primarily to avoid being caught in the cross-fire of a war.

A Palestinian refugee who was an administrator in a UNRWA camp in Jericho said Arab politicians had spread rumors in the camp. "They said all the young people would be killed. People heard on the radio that this is not the end, only the beginning, so they think maybe it will be a long war and they want to be in Jordan."

Some Palestinians who left preferred to live in an Arab state rather than under Israeli military rule. Members of various PLO factions fled to avoid capture by the Israelis. Nils-Göran Gussing, the person appointed by the UN Secretary-General to investigate the situation, found that many Arabs also feared they would no longer be able to receive money from family members working abroad.

Israeli forces ordered a handful of Palestinians to move for "strategic and security reasons." In some cases, they were allowed to return in a few days, in others; Israel offered to help them resettle elsewhere. The net result, however, was that a new refugee population had been created and the old refugee problem was made worse.

The Stunning Victory
While most IDF units were fighting the Egyptians and Jordanians, a small, heroic group of soldiers were left to defend the northern border against the Syrians. It was not until the Jordanians and Egyptians were subdued that reinforcements could be sent to the Golan Heights, where Syrian gunners commanding the strategic high ground made it exceedingly difficult and costly for Israeli forces to penetrate. Finally, on June 9, after two days of heavy air bombardment, Israeli forces succeeded in breaking through the Syrian lines.

After just six days of fighting, Israeli forces were in a position to march on Cairo, Damascus, and Amman. By this time, the principal objectives of capturing the Sinai and the Golan Heights had been accomplished, and Israeli political leaders had no desire to fight in the Arab capitals. Furthermore, the Soviet Union had become increasingly alarmed by the Israeli advances and was threatening to intervene. At this point, U.S. Secretary of State Dean Rusk advised the Israelis "in the strongest possible terms" to accept a cease-fire. On June 10, Israel did just that.

The victory came at a very high cost. In storming the Golan Heights, Israel suffered 115 dead-roughly the number of Americans killed during Operation Desert Storm. Altogether, Israel lost twice as many men — 777 dead and 2,586 wounded-in proportion to her total population as the U.S. lost in eight years of fighting in Vietnam. Also, despite the incredible success of the air campaign, the Israeli Air Force lost 46 of its 200 fighters. The death toll on the Arab side was 15,000 Egyptians, 2,500 Syrians, and 800 Jordanians.

By the end of the war, Israel had conquered enough territory to more than triple the size of the area it controlled, from 8,000 to 26,000 square miles. The victory enabled Israel to unify Jerusalem. Israeli forces had also captured the Sinai, Golan Heights, Gaza Strip and West Bank.

Israel now ruled more than three-quarters of a million Palestinians — most of whom were hostile to the government. Nevertheless, more than 9,000 Palestinian families were reunited in 1967. Ultimately, more than 60,000 Palestinians were allowed to return.

In November 1967, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 242, which established a formula for Arab-Israeli peace whereby Israel would withdraw from territories occupied in the war in exchange for peace with its neighbors. This resolution has served as the basis for peace negotiations from that time on.

Israel's leaders fully expected to negotiate a peace agreement with their neighbors that would involve some territorial compromise. Therefore, instead of annexing the West Bank, a military administration was created. No occupation is pleasant for the inhabitants, but the Israeli authorities did try to minimize the impact on the population. Don Peretz, a frequent writer on the situation of Arabs in Israel and a sharp critic of the Israeli government, visited the West Bank shortly after the Israeli troops had taken over. He found they were trying to restore normal life and prevent any incidents that might encourage the Arabs to leave their homes.

Except for the requirement that school texts in the territories be purged of anti-Israel and anti-Semitic language, the authorities tried not to interfere with the inhabitants. They did provide economic assistance; for example, Palestinians in the Gaza Strip were moved from camps to new homes. This stimulated protests from Egypt, which had done nothing for the refugees when it controlled the area.

Arabs were given freedom of movement. They were allowed to travel to and from Jordan. In 1972, elections were held in the West Bank. Women and non-landowners, unable to participate under Jordanian rule, were now permitted to vote.

East Jerusalem Arabs were given the option of retaining Jordanian citizenship or acquiring Israeli citizenship. They were recognized as residents of united Jerusalem and given the right to vote and run for the city council. Also, Islamic holy places were put in the care of a Muslim Council. Despite the Temple Mount's significance in Jewish history, Jews were barred from conducting prayers there.

Rallies to mark Six-Day War anniversary
Tuesday, 5 June 2007
Israeli and Palestinian peace activists have planned a series of rallies to mark today's 40th anniversary of the start of the Six-Day War in which Israel defeated the armies of Egypt, Jordan and Syria.

During the 1967 conflict, Israeli troops captured the West Bank and east Jerusalem from Jordan, the Golan Heights from Syria, and the Gaza Strip and Sinai peninsula from Egypt.

Campaigners will be protesting against Israeli occupation and Jewish settlements, and demanding a peaceful resolution of the Middle East conflict.

Simultaneous rallies are to be held in Israel's commercial capital, Tel Aviv, and in occupied east Jerusalem, which will be broadcast live on giant screens.
Just finished watching a two part documentary on the Arab/Israeli 1967 war on Australian SBS television and was fascinated to learn just how decisive and QUICK the Israeli offensive was. Mention is made that the Jordanian Air Force was eliminated in nine minutes!

So my question is, just what did the Jordanian Air Force consist of in 1967 to be destroyed so quickly?

Never realised how close the Soviet Union was to being involved in the conflict in defence of Syria. Russian military aircraft were in the process of having the markings removed ready for transfer to Syria.
Interesting also to note the conflicting views now between Israeli veterans of that conflict. Those that support Dayan to this day and those that feel that the occupation merely subjected Israeli to a religious war that has represented "forty years of hell".
Israel had a ton of advantages and used them to the fullest. Interior lines of communication and proffessional reserve force were two of them. Plus, they trained like they fought and fought like they trained. As an Egyptian Officer later said (paraphrase), "The Israelis built an Army to fight, we built an army for parades".

It is interesting that a PBS documentary on the 6 Day War (take anything PBS does with a grain of salt these days) stated that Nassar was running a bluff the whole time. I think there may've been some truth to that but also, he was working as an opportunist. If he pushed the Israelis and nothing happened, push a little more. I think he was playing a game of chicken with a chance he would attack if nothing came back at him during his bluffing. Didn't work out the way he planned.
Israel had one other advantage that needs to mentioned - no other choice.

If they lost they would have been totally annihilated. The countries surrounding Israel all announced that they would finish what Hitler started. This made the situation totally clear to the military and the entire nation that if they did not win their families would not live.

They did not have an professional reserve force at all. They had an experienced reserve force - a vast difference. The reserves were made of the those individuals after their active service.

Good planning along with great tactics made it happen.
from the same website...

The Israeli Air Force destroyed 304 out of 419 Egyptian aircraft on the ground, 53 out of 112 Syrian planes, and Jordan's entire 28 plane Air Force. The IAF even struck at Iraq's western most airbase at Habbaniya, destroying ten planes on the ground.

from Jordan - Air Force

From the late 1950s through the mid-1960s, the primary combat airplanes of the air force inventory consisted of Hawker Hunter fighter-bombers that were transferred from the RAF but paid for by the United States. During the first few hours of the June 1967 War, Israeli pilots destroyed all but one of Jordan's serviceable combat airplanes as well as three Hunters on loan from Iraq. To assist Jordan in its recovery from the loss of virtually its entire air arm, additional Hunter aircraft were supplied by Britain and Saudi Arabia. In mid-1969, the United States provided twenty F-104 Starfighters to form the first Jordanian fighter-interceptor squadron.

Nassar's bluff partly worked as Syria, Jordan and Iraq joined in the bullying of Israel. But it cost them.
Just finished watching a two part documentary on the Arab/Israeli 1967 war on Australian SBS television and was fascinated to learn just how decisive and QUICK the Israeli offensive was. Mention is made that the Jordanian Air Force was eliminated in nine minutes!

So my question is, just what did the Jordanian Air Force consist of in 1967 to be destroyed so quickly?

I am pretty sure that Israel didn't have it all its own way. I have read in the past of at least one combat between Jordanian Hunters and Israeli Mirages where the Hunters came out top so nine minutes may be a bit of an exageration.
I am pretty sure that Israel didn't have it all its own way. I have read in the past of at least one combat between Jordanian Hunters and Israeli Mirages where the Hunters came out top so nine minutes may be a bit of an exageration.

Oddly, the documentary was a French/Canadian production. Apart from the Hawker Hunters, what other aircraft did the Jordanians possess?
The Egyptians were there own worst enemy?

From 'World Conflicts'-Patrick Brogan pp314.

"At 7.45 Monday, 5th June, the IAF attacked the Egyptians. They flew low across the Mediterranean, under the sightline of the Egyptian radar (but watched by the British on radar from Cyprus; they gave first news of the war to London). Then they turned inland, and attacked Egypt from the west-the wrong way. Egyptian pilots had expected a traditional dawn attack, out of the rising sun, and had waited in their aircraft every morning. Every morning, when the attack did not come, they went to breakfast. Thus the Israelis caught the Egyptian air force on the ground, defenceless, and they destroyed it.

In 500 sorties, the Israelis destroyed 309 out of 340 combat-ready planes, including all 30 long-range bombers. The Egyptians promptly announced that they had destroyed 400 Israeli planes. Believing the boast, the Syrian and Jordanian air forces attacked Israel. By the evening, the Jordanian air force had been wiped out, Syria had lost two-thirds of its aircraft and an Iraqi squadron was destroyed on the ground at a base in Jordan. In all, the Israelis destroyed 393 Arab aircraft on the ground and 58 in the air, with an Israeli loss of 26".

As 'GLIDER' pointed out earlier, there was some Jordanian resistance;

" One of the Jordanian Hunter pilots, Captain Ihsan Shurdom, was credited with destroying one Mirage, two Mysteres and a Vautour".

From the part series, 'World Aircraft Information Files'
I may be mistaken but I think that the Jordainian vs Israel fighter combat took place earlier, possible April or May of that year. And yes, the IAF was on the losing end.
According to the Royal Jordanian AF own website, they claimed 3 IDF aircraft shot down during the 67 war. Ihsan Shurdom seems to have been involved in clashes prior to the 67 war where one Mirage was destroyed and 3 others damaged, all be RJAF Hunters. ACIG database mentions Ihsan Shurdom during this action.
According to the Royal Jordanian AF own website, they claimed 3 IDF aircraft shot down during the 67 war. Ihsan Shurdom seems to have been involved in clashes prior to the 67 war where one Mirage was destroyed and 3 others damaged, all be RJAF Hunters. ACIG database mentions Ihsan Shurdom during this action.

I suspect your sources would be more reliable. This is how the part-series worded it, under the umbrella of 5 June 1967:

"When the IAF tried to attack the Iraqi bases it was heavily engaged by Hunters whose pilots claimed nine of the raiders. A Lebanese reconnaissance Hunter was shot down over Galilee as frequent battles continued for the next four days. One of the Jordanian Hunter pilots Captain Ihsan Shurdom, was credited with destroying one Mirage, two Mysteres and a Vautour".

And as far as the RJAF, it had this to say earlier on:

"Now the IAF turned its attention to the RJAF with devastating strikes against its bases at Mafraq and Amman, destroying 17 of Jordan,s total force of 18 Hunters. With no aircraft for his pilots to fly, King Hussein placed his men at the disposal of the Iraqi air force at its base H3".

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