Spanish Navy Air Arm

Discussion in 'Modern' started by gekho, Apr 13, 2010.

  1. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    #1 gekho, Apr 13, 2010
    Last edited: Apr 20, 2010
    The Spanish Navy (in Spanish, Armada Española) is the maritime arm of the Spanish Military, one of the oldest active naval forces in the world. The Armada is responsible for notable achievements in world history such as the discovery of America, the first world circumnavigation, and the discovery of a maritime path from the Far East to America across the Pacific Ocean (Urdaneta's route). For three centuries the Spanish Navy formed part of a vast trade network that sailed the Pacific from Asia to America and the Atlantic from America to Europe escorting the galleon convoys. The Spanish Navy was the most powerful maritime force in Europe from the early 16th to the mid-17th centuries, and one of the strongest in the world until the early 19th century. As of 1987, the Armada was made up of 47,300 personnel, including Marines, of which about 34,000 were conscripts. As of 2002 all branches of the Spanish armed forces were completely professionalized. The main bases of the Spanish Navy are located in Rota, Ferrol, San Fernando and Cartagena.
     

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  2. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    #2 gekho, Apr 13, 2010
    Last edited: Apr 25, 2010
    The Spanish Navy has operated Harriers for over thirty years. The first batch of six Hawker Siddeley AV-8S single seat and two TAV-8S two seat aircraft were delivered to the Spanish Navy throughout 1976. A second batch of four AV-8S aircraft was delivered in 1980.

    The aircraft's official name is Matador (aaaah..... stereotypes), although the distinctive large air intakes led to the nickname "Cobra". All of the AV-8Ss were operated by 8 Squadron, based at Naval Air Station Rota, as were all other Spanish Naval Aviation Squadrons.

    The early model AV-8S received company when the Spanish Navy took delivery of the EAV-8B Matador II in 1987. Between 1987 and autumn 1988, 12 EAV-8Bs were delivered to the newly formed 9 Escuadrilla at NAS Rota. The new EAV-8B offered better performance and handling. It had a newly designed wing, which offered better performance at high speeds, better fuel consumption and increased fuel capacity. The Rolls Royce F402-RR-406 engine offered better trust and reliability than the engine of the old AV-8S. The EA-8B also has smaller air intakes and a higher placed canopy, offering better pilot visibility. The remaining seven AV-8Ss and two TAV-8Ss were sold to Thailand in 1996, where they entered service with the Royal Thai Navy. After phasing out the AV-8S and TAV-8S Matadors, 8 Escuadrilla was disbanded.
     

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  3. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    #3 gekho, Apr 13, 2010
    Last edited: Apr 25, 2010
    See more pictures of the mighty Harrier
     

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  4. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    #4 gekho, Apr 13, 2010
    Last edited: Apr 25, 2010
    During 1996 the Spanish Navy took delivery of its first EAV-8B+ aircraft. The Harrier II Plus program was a joint effort by the United States Marine Corps, the Spanish Navy, and Italian Navy to increase the effectiveness of the AV-8B while sharing the costs of the program. The largest and most noticeable improvement of the Harrier II Plus program was the installation of the Hughes AN/APG-65 multimode radar, the original radar system of the F/A-18A/C Hornet. Although fitted with a slightly smaller antenna than on the Hornet, the AN/APG-65 gives the EAV-8B+ a true Beyond Visual Range (BVR) capability. Armed with the AIM-120 AMRAAM missile, the EAV-8B+ can detect and destroy enemy aircraft well before they enter visual range. The radarless EAV-8B can only rely on short-range heat seeking AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles for self-defence. EAV-8B+ Harriers can easily be identified by their larger noses, which house the AN/APG-65 radar.

    But the strike capabilities of the EAV-8B+ were also improved. The Litening II Targeting Pod enables the EAV-8B+ to undertake strike missions at night or in adverse weather. New avionics and weapon systems allow the EAV-8B+ to use precision-guided munitions including JDAM and laser guided weapon systems. The EAV-8B+ also received a new Rolls Royce engine, the F402-RR-408, delivering 10% more thrust than the older -406 engines. The Spanish Navy received eight "factory fresh" EAV-8B+ aircraft in 1996, which also entered service with 9 Escuadrilla. Of the remaining nine EAV-8B Harriers, three aircraft were lost in accidents, five were upgraded to Harrier II Plus standard by CASA in Spain. Four EAV-8B “Day Attack” Harriers continue to operate next to the EAV-8B+ variants with 9 Escuadrilla, although the Spanish Navy is looking into a small upgrade of these aircraft. This upgrade would not give them the AN/APG-65 radar of the EAV-8B+, but would include the F402-RR-408 engine and some of the targeting systems.

    Besides the EAV-8B and EAV-8B+ Harriers, 9 Escuadrilla also operates a single two seat TAV-8B. After the sale of the two TAV-8S aircraft in 1996, US Marine Corps instructors at MCAS Cherry Point, North Carolina, trained the Spanish Harrier pilots. After delivery of the sole TAV-8B of the Spanish Navy in June 2001, Spanish Harrier pilots can receive their training at NAS Rota. But Spanish Harrier pilots in the making still have to travel to the United States as all initial flight training is conducted with the T-34 Mentor and T-45 Goshawk training squadrons of the US Navy.
     

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  5. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    #5 gekho, Apr 13, 2010
    Last edited: Apr 25, 2010
    See more pictures of the mighty Harrier
     

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  6. Capt. Vick

    Capt. Vick Well-Known Member

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    Great pictures!
     
  7. timshatz

    timshatz Active Member

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    Very cool shots.
     
  8. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    More pics
     

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  9. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    The Sikorsky SH-3 Sea King (company designation S-61) is a twin-engined anti-submarine warfare (ASW) helicopter. It served with the United States Navy and other forces, and continues to serve in many countries around the world. The Sea King has been built under license in Italy and Japan, and in the United Kingdom as the Westland Sea King. The major civil versions are the S-61L and S-61N.In 1957, Sikorsky was awarded a contract to develop an all-weather amphibious helicopter. It would combine submarine hunter and killer roles. The prototype flew on 11 March 1959. It became operational with the United States Navy in June 1961 as the HSS-2. The designation for the aircraft was changed with the introduction of the unified aircraft designation system in 1962 to the SH-3A. It was used primarily for anti-submarine warfare, but also served in anti-ship, search and rescue, transport, communications, executive transport and Airborne Early Warning roles.

    5 Escuadrilla, nicknamed "The Flying Cows", flies two versions of the SH-3H Sea King. Initially all Sea Kings were delivered as Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) helicopters but three of these were converted to Airborne Early Warning (AEW) helicopters by CASA in Spain. The AEW Sea Kkings use the Searchwater radar system and can easily be identified by the large radar bulge attached to the helicopter. Operated by two radar officers, the AEW SH-3H Sea Kings patrol ahead of the naval task force, providing early warning alert for incoming missiles or aircraft. The rest of the SH-3Hs were converted to troop carriers and received a transport role. Usually, two AEW Sea Kings deploy aboard the Principe de Asturias, with the third example remaining at NAS Rota. The SH-3H troop carriers not only deploy aboard the carrier but also to Spanish Navy amphibious ships such as the SPS Galicia (L51) and SPS Castilla (L52).
     

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  10. Waynos

    Waynos Active Member

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    Excellent stuff. How ironic that every Harrier operator bar Thailand now operates a version of the aircraft at sea that is superior to those of the UK Royal Navy. Falklands war - what lessons? :(

    Incidental point - Did you know that the Spanish originally used the US designations for the Harrier and its engine, AV-8 and F-402, purely due to an anti British political bias? The sales were routed though McDonnell Douglas and GE for political reasons and the aircraft were delivered from the UK to the USA and then onto Spain. How strange!
     
  11. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    #11 gekho, Apr 14, 2010
    Last edited: Apr 20, 2010
    The SH-3D first entered service with 005 Escuadrilla in 1966, with the last of eighteen airframes being delivered in 1981. Its primary task then was Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW), although as with many NATO countries the diminishing threat (?) from the east has resulted in aircraft having there roles altered. Eleven are currently still in service of which eight have been upgraded to SH-3H standard and the other three have been converted to SH-3W versions (seen opposite) carrying the Thorn EMI Searchwater radar to provide an Airborne Early warning (AEW) capability within the fleet. The SH-3D's primary task now is transport duties, (supplementing the smaller AB.212) and search rescue (SAR) duties. One of the many recent updates the Sea King has experienced is a Night Vision Goggle (NVG) capability and armoured seating for the crew.

    These and the others pictures show the first Sea Kings that arrived to Spain, wearing a dark blue scheme colour and the words "Marina" or "Armada" in their tails. Pay atention to the last photo; it shows a spanish Sea King flying over New York. What was it doing there? I have no idea.
     

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  12. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    These spectacular shots were taken in Santander, during an exhibition in 2009. You can see not only the Sea kings but also the Super Puma and Chinook helicopters of the Army. Many troops and machines were taken to this city, participating not only the helicopters; also the Principe de Asturia´s Harriers, that landed on the beach in a great exhibition.
     

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  13. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    Yes, you are right concerning the Harriers of the UK Royal Navy, but dont forget that the most important thing is the operationality of the planes and the profesionality of the pilots. Your enemy can have better and more aircrafts than you, but if they dont know how to use it, you will defeat them. A good example are the Israel-Arab Wars or even the Falklands Islands War.

    I had no idea about that. Thanks for the information!!
     
  14. Waynos

    Waynos Active Member

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    I was referring to the fact that no British Harriers are equipped with radar and thus possess no BVR capability at all, despite this being one of the biggest lessons to come out of the Falklands and the primary reason behind the creation of the Sea Harrier FA.2. We just threw it all away. The GR.9 is almost identical to the AV-8B+ except for the lack of radar.

    You're welcome.
     
  15. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    #15 gekho, Apr 15, 2010
    Last edited: Apr 25, 2010
    The AH-1 Cobra (company designation: Bell 209) is a two-bladed, single engine attack helicopter manufactured by Bell. It shares a common engine, transmission and rotor system with the older UH-1 Iroquois. The AH-1 is also referred to as the HueyCobra or Snake. The AH-1 was the backbone of the United States Army's attack helicopter fleet, but has been replaced by the AH-64 Apache in Army service. Upgraded versions continue to fly with the militaries of several other nations. The AH-1 twin engine versions remain in service with United States Marine Corps as the service's primary attack helicopter. Surplus AH-1 helicopters have been converted for fighting forest fires. The United States Forest Service refers to their program as the Firewatch Cobra. Garlick Helicopters also converts surplus AH-1s for forest firefighting under the name, FireSnake.

    Spanish Navy purchased eight new-build AH-1Gs, designating the type the "Z-14". These were equipped with the M35 20 mm cannon system, and were used to support coastal patrol boats. Four of these were lost in accidents. The remaining helicopters were retired in 1985 with three sent back to the US, and one kept in storage in Spain.
     

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  16. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    #16 gekho, Apr 15, 2010
    Last edited: Apr 25, 2010
    more pics
     

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  17. N4521U

    N4521U Well-Known Member

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    Having been an aircrewman in SH-3A in the US Navy in the 60's when they were brand new, I have to say that first photo in blue has got to be the best looking SH-3 you could ever see. Cheers for the photos. Bill
     
  18. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    Thanks!!:D
     
  19. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    #19 gekho, Apr 16, 2010
    Last edited: Apr 16, 2010
    The UH-1 Iroquois is a military helicopter powered by a single, turboshaft engine, with a two-bladed main rotor and tail rotor. The helicopter was developed by Bell Helicopter to meet the United States Army's requirement for a medical evacuation and utility helicopter in 1952, and first flew on 20 October 1956. Ordered into production in March 1960, the UH-1 was the first turbine-powered helicopter to enter production for the United States military, and more than 16,000 have been produced worldwide. The first combat operation of the UH-1 was in the service of the U.S. Army during the Vietnam War. The original designation of HU-1 led to the helicopter's nickname of Huey. In September 1962, the designation was changed to UH-1, but Huey remained in common use, as well as being chosen as the official name by the United States Marine Corps. Approximately 7,000 UH-1 aircraft saw service in Vietnam.

    Spain acquired four units to operate from the carrier Dedalo. They arrived in 1964, being sent to the 3 Squadron, based in Rota. They received the military code Z.8 and were operated for 15 years, until they were replaced in 1979 by the AB-212. The Z.8-2 is actually preserved at the Cuatro Vientos Museum in Madrid, where it can be visited.
     

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  20. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    #20 gekho, Apr 17, 2010
    Last edited: Apr 25, 2010
    The Sikorsky H-19 Chickasaw, (also known by its Sikorsky model number, S-55) was a multi-purpose helicopter used by the United States Army and United States Air Force. It was also license-built by Westland Aircraft as the Westland Whirlwind in the United Kingdom. United States Navy and United States Coast Guard models were designated HO4S, while those of the U.S. Marine Corps were designated HRS. In 1962, the U.S. Navy, U.S. Coast Guard and U.S. Marine Corps versions were all redesignated as H-19s like their U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force counterparts. The H-19 Chickasaw holds the distinction of being the US Army's first true transport helicopter and, as such, played an important role in the initial formulation of Army doctrine regarding air mobility and the battlefield employment of troop-carrying helicopters. The H-19 underwent live service tests in the hands of the 6th Transportation Company, during the Korean War beginning in 1951 as an unarmed transport helicopter. Undergoing tests such as medical evacuation, tactical control and front-line cargo support, the helicopter succeeded admirably in surpassing the capabilities of the H-5 Dragonfly which had been used throughout the Korean conflict by the Army.

    France made aggressive use of helicopters in Algeria, both as troop transports and gunships, Piasecki/Vertol H-21 and Sud-built Sikorski H-34 helicopters rapidly displaced fixed-wing aircraft for the transport of paras and quick-reaction commando teams. In Indochina, a small number of Hiller H-23s and Sikorsky H-19s were available for casualty evacuation. In 1956, the French Air Force experimented with arming the H-19, then being superseded in service by the more capable Piasecki H-21 and Sikorsky H-34 helicopters. The H-19 was originally fitted with a 20-mm cannon, two rocket launchers, plus a 20-mm cannon, two 12.7-mm machine guns, and a 7.5-mm light machine gun firing from the cabin windows, but this load proved far too heavy, and even lightly-armed H-19 gunships fitted with flexible machine guns for self-defense proved underpowered. The H-19 was also used in the early days of the Vietnam War before being supplanted by the Sikorsky H-34 Choctaw, which was based on the H-19.
     

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