Which is better: P-47 or Fw-190?

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I think that the answer to the title of the thread," which is better the FW190 or the P47" is that there is no right answer. As with so many comparisons of planes with drastically different qualities it depends on the mission and the oponent which is better.
In this comparison I would say each side had the plane that better suited there needs.
 
Yes the manufacturer and in some cases the military (normally after something bad happens) places limits on the aircrafts performance. The aircraft can perform better than these limits if need be but the limits are placed there to keep the pilot from doing something stupid.

Now in combat limits being exceeded is not uncommon. Many times the pilot exceeding the limits gets the kill.

Here is an example of exceeding limits to successfully get a kill...

Chasing a Mig, well above max tank jettison speed when he punches off his external wing tanks. Dash-1 (flight manual) warns this could happen. Notice missing portion of wing tip.

Squadron Commander: I heard you hurt one of my jets?

Pilot: Yes sir.

Squadron Commander: Did you get a kill?

Pilot: Yes sir.

Squadron Commander: Well done!

Cheers,
Biff
 

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Here is an example of exceeding limits to successfully get a kill...

Not really analogous but reminded me of this anecdote:

Sitting on the grass in the warm sunshine beside my aircraft waiting to be refueled, I found my attention drawn to a lone Spitfire making a circuit. As he turned into the wind, I noticed that his wheels weren't down. A red flare arched in the air from the Watch Office. Oblivious to the warning, the aircraft ground in on its belly in a cloud of dust. I recognized the Squadron letters to be the same as those of the Polish Squadron Leader and his two mates who, like me, were waiting to be refueled.

As the pilot in the aircraft stood up in the cockpit, the three Poles ran to assist him. From a distance, the pilot appeared to be unhurt, and from the way he was moving his hands he was evidently recounting an engagement. His three Squadron mates gave a synchronous shout of triumph and threw up their hands. With his arm over the shoulder of the pilot the Squadron Leader led his men back to dispersal jabbering in Polish. As he passed me I asked:

'Was he shot up badly, Sir?'
'No,' he replied, in a tone as if I'd asked a stupid question.
'Why didn't he put down his wheels?'
'Oh dat, he just forgot! What matter, he killed two German.'

With a wide toothy grin and a convulsive grunt, he stomped his foot emphatically. I was very envious.
 
And in fact after that was introduced. The only altitude at which a 67" P-51B (which is faster than P-51D) can outrun a 70" P-47D is around the first stage supercharger crit alt of the P-51. See wwiiaircraftperformance.org, I compared the two before

Several things that need to be accounted for:
- Merlin Mustang will run at up to 75" Hg boost with 150 grade fuel; P-47D will run at up to 64-65" Hg with 130 grade fuel + ADI, it will need 150 grade fuel + ADI for 70" Hg boost
- when both aircraft were outfitted with racks, P-51D/K is no slower than P-51B/C, due to racks being of new, less draggy design
- how fast was P-47D with wing racks?
- there is no such thing as 'the 1st stage supercharger crit alt', what can be is '1st speed S/C critical alt' - on 2-stage Merlins, both stages were always operating
 

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