Japanese fighters training Aircrafts

Discussion in 'Aircraft Pictures' started by gekho, Jul 29, 2011.

  1. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    Before and during World War II, Japan did not have three branches in its military; rather, the army and the navy each had their own air service. Since they worked independently of each other, the Japanese army and navy created separate air forces suited to their specific needs. The army built Japanese aircraft and trained to fight the Russians overland and the navy prepared to fight Britain and the USA on the open seas. This organization of Japanese air power was detrimental for obvious reasons. Some less believable circumstances exacerbated the problem though. For instance: army and navy plane factories were kept separate from one another. They acted like competitors! Both branches kept their design secrets to themselves, there was no standardization of simple mechanics like screws and framing, and they each employed different electrical systems. A classic example of this over-arching problem was the superiority of the navy’s Zero to the army’s Hayabusa. Had the navy been willing to share the Zero (and the army willing to accept the helping hand) Japan might have scrapped the Hayabusa altogether. Simple economies-of-scale would have meant a much greater number of battle-ready fighters for the Japanese war effort. Furthermore, neither air service developed a heavy bomber on par with those of Britain or the United States until they finally co-operated in 1944 on the massive 6-engine Fugaku. This collusion was too little, too late however, as the Fugaku never made it to service.

    Besides this stubbornness in regards to co-operation, the two branches also hid their weaknesses and losses from each other. For example, the army was not made aware of the navy’s 1942 rout at Midway until 1945. Both Japanese air forces were very well trained and both met with great success in the Sino-Japanese war and the early Pacific campaigns. Japan easily gained air superiority over China. In 1941, most first-string Japanese pilots had somewhere between 500 and 800 flying hours. Roughly half of army pilots had seen combat against China and Russia (around 10% for the navy). Unfortunately, Japan did not have a proper plan in place to replace lost pilots and by 1944 – due to time and fuel constraints – most replacement pilots were lucky to have 120 flying hours before entering combat. Early on though, the Japanese aircraft were deadly instruments. On December 7th, 1941 the naval air force surprise-attacked Pearl Harbour, ushering in a new era of naval aviation. Just a few days later navy planes sunk the British battleship Prince of Wales and the cruiser Repulse near Malaya. Japan had created a new paradigm: air support became a necessity for naval fleets. As the war progressed the Japanese air forces quickly lost ground to the faster, more heavily armed and armoured American air force. When the American B-29s began bombing over the Japanese islands, lightly-armed Japanese fighters had difficulty bringing them down. Japanese planes also lacked the advantage of airborne radar. This discrepancy led Japan to begin kamikaze – a suicide tactic where a plane is loaded with explosives and crashed directly into its target – attacks on U.S. shipping. A successful, if desperate, doctrine, kamikaze attacks caused the US more naval losses than ever before or since. The attacks were first used in the Battle of Leyte Gulf but were most notorious in the Battle of Okinawa. Kamikaze was too little, too late as well as Japan felt the full focus of the US military after the German surrender. Between 1940 and 1945 Japan produced nearly 75,000 aircraft. The US produced nearly 300,000. Japanese losses by the time of surrender were 43,110.
     
  2. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    Four Ki-10 single-seat fighter prototypes made their appear-ance in the spring of 1935, designed by Takeo Doi (who had succeeded Richard Vogt as Kawasaki's chief designer).The Ki-10 was selected in competition with Nakajima's Ki-11 low-wing monoplane, the Japanese Army preferring the Ki-10 biplane's manoeuvrability to its opponent's slightly superior speed. Production Ki-10-1 aircraft were powered by the 633kW Kawasaki Ha-9-IIa liquid-cooled engine, 300 of which were built be-tween 1935 and 1937 and went into service as the Army Type 95 Fighter. They featured biplane wings of unequal span, braced by N-struts and with ailerons on the upper wing only. The divided undercarriage had wheel spats. The all-metal structure was alloy sheet and fabric-covered. Armament comprised two synchronised 7.7mm Type 89 machine-guns. The improved Type 95 Model 2 had increased wing span and length, and vertical tail surfaces of greater area. This version remained in production until December 1938, 280 being completed. Meanwhile during 1936-7 three experimental variants, incorporating modifications to improve performance, were tested but rejected for production. The Ki-10 had excellent dogfighting qualities and proved itself during the second Chinese incident. It took part in the fighting against Russian forces at Nomonhan, although by then (1939) it was largely outclassed. The Ki-10 was coded Perry by the Allies
     

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  3. Wayne Little

    Wayne Little Well-Known Member

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    Look forward to more of this thread....
     
  4. Gnomey

    Gnomey World Travelling Doctor
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  5. vikingBerserker

    vikingBerserker Well-Known Member

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  6. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    The A2N was originally developed as a private venture by Nakajima for the Imperial Japanese Navy. It was based loosely on the Boeing Model 69 and Boeing Model 100, examples of both having been imported in 1928 and 1929 respectively. Takao Yoshida led the design team. Two prototypes, designated 'Type 90 Carrier fighter' in anticipation of Navy acceptance were ready by December 1929. Powered by Bristol Jupiter VI engines, these were rejected, not being regarded as offering a significant improvement over the A1N. Jingo Kurihara carried out a partial redesign and another prototype, the A2N1, powered by a 432 kW (580 hp) Nakajima Kotobuki 2, was completed in May 1931. The type was adopted by the Navy in April 1932. In 1932, Minoru Genda formed a flight demonstration team known as "Genda's Flying Circus" to promote naval aviation and flew this type. A two-seat trainer was later developed from the Type 90 as the A3N1 and 66 of these were built between 1936 and 1939.
     

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  7. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    Designed for use as a primary or intermediate trainer (role change being achieved by the use of a different engine in the same airframe) the Tachikawa Ki-9 unequal-span two-seat biplane appeared in late 1934. The first of three prototypes was flown on 7 January 1935, powered by a 261kW Hitachi Ha-13a radial. A similarly-powered second prototype was followed by the third with a 112kW Nakajima NZ seven-cylinder radial. Tests indicated centre of gravity problems for the proposed primary trainer and the Ki-9 was developed in the higher-powered intermediate training role only. Production deliveries began in 1935. Designated the Army Type 95-1 Medium Grade Trainer Model A and later given the Allied codename 'Spruce', the Tachikawa biplane had complex split-axle landing gear with fairings over the top of the wheels. In 1939 this was modified and simplified, the fuselage slightly shortened and all-up weight reduced. The resulting Army Type 95-1 Model B or Ki-9 Kai had improved manoeuvrability and flight characteristics. Both versions were used widely for blind-flying training with a folding hood over the rear cockpit, and at least one was modified with a glazed canopy over the rear cockpit for use as a staff officer transport. Production by Tachikawa totalled 2,395, ending in 1942. At least another 220 Ki-9s were constructed by Tokyo Gasu Denki in the last two years of the war. The Japanese army's standard basic trainer, the Ki-9 was also flown in wartime by Japanese satellite countries and postwar by Indonesia.
     

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  8. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    #8 gekho, Jul 31, 2011
    Last edited: Jul 31, 2011
    The Ki-9 was originally planned to be manufactured in two versions using the same basic airframe, but with different engines for service as either a primary or intermediate trainer. However, when the lower-powered form proved to be unsuitable due a center of gravity issue, design of a new airframe was ordered for the basic trainer version, and was given the new designation of Ki-17. Compared to the Ki-9, the Ki-17 had equal-span wings, a slimmer fuselage and a revised tailplane. It was powered by a 112 kW (150 hp) Hitachi Ha-13a radial engine. The first prototype flew in July 1935. The only major change made to subsequent production aircraft was the deletion of the upper-wing ailerons to eliminate oversensitive control inputs.

    The Ki-17 was introduced to service as the “Army Type 95-3 Basic Grade Trainer Model A” under the former aircraft naming nomenclature system. Tachikawa manufactured 560 Ki-17s between 1936 and 1943 and the type saw service with the Army Air Academy and flight training schools.
     

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  9. Wayne Little

    Wayne Little Well-Known Member

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  10. bobbysocks

    bobbysocks Well-Known Member

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    on the Tachikawa Ki-9/Army Type 95-1 Medium Grade Trainer.... i especially like the 55 gal drum in the pilots seat. its either an extra gas tank or delivery or used for ballast so the pilot can fly front seat.
     
  11. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    A Japanese army requirement of 1927 for a new single-seat fighter was contested by Nakajima, Kawasaki and Mitsubishi. All the designs were parasol-wing monoplanes developed in Japan by teams wholly or partly led by Europeans, in the case of Nakajima the French engineers Mary and Robin, Structural failure of the Mitsubishi prototype led to severe testing of the survivors, which were then also eliminated. The Nakajima: prototype, company designation NC, had a slim tapering monocoque fuselage, an uncowled Jupiter radial engine, and elaborate strut bracing connecting wings, fuselage and the wide-track landing gear. Nakajima persevered with the design and built six more prototypes, the last of the series being tested extensively by the Japanese army and accepted for production as the Army Type 91 Fighter Model 1. Retaining the same basic configuration as the NC prototype, this was virtually a redesign which resulted in a considerably refined airframe. Production of the Type 91 terminated in 1934 with the 450th aircraft; of these 22 were Army Type 91 Fighter Model 2 aircraft with modified engine cowlings. A Type 91 was converted for carrier operations and with spatted wheel fairings was submitted for the navy 7-Shi experimental fighter competition, but was rejected. The only other modification from standard army configuration was the use of a three-bladed propeller.

    Introduced from 1932 onwards, the Type 91s were deployed in action with the four squadrons of the 11th Air Battalion operating with the army Kanto Command in Manchuria against the Chinese. In. 1933 the Type 91 was the principal army fighter and constituted the standard equipment for the newly formed air wings (or Hiko Rentai).
     

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  12. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    The aircraft was based on the Yokosuka Navy Type 91 Intermidiate Trainer, but stability problems led to a redesign by Kawanishi in 1933. It entered service in 1934 as Navy Type 93 Intermidiate Trainer K5Y1 with fixed tail-skid landing gear, and remained in use throughout the war. Floatplane types K5Y2 and K5Y3 were also produced. After the initial 60 examples by Kawanishi, manufacture was continued by Watanabe (556 aircraft built), Mitsubishi (60), Hitachi (1,393), First Naval Air Technical Arsenal (75), Nakajima (24), Nippon (2,733), and Fuji (896), for a total of 5,770. These aircraft were the mainstay of Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service's flight training, and as intermediate trainers, they were capable of performing demanding aerobatic maneuvers. Two further land-based versions, the K5Y4 with a 358 kW (480 hp) Amakaze 21A engine and the K5Y5 with a 384 kW (515 hp) Amakaze 15, were projected but never built.
     

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  13. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    The Aichi H9A (Navy Type 2 Training Flying Boat) was an Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service flying boat used during the first years of World War II for crew training. An uncommon type, it was not encountered by Allied forces until spring 1945, and was never assigned an Allied reporting name. The H9A was a twin-engined, parasol-wing flying boat, designated by Aichi as their AM-212 design, and was designed in response to an Imperial Japanese Navy requirement for an advanced seaplane trainer for future crew members of the four-engined Kawanishi H8K "Emily" flying boat. Design work started in January 1940 and the first of three prototypes was flown in September 1940. The aircraft had a normal crew of five (pilot, co-pilot, observer, flight engineer and a radio-operator) but seating was provided for an additional three pupil crew members. It is noteworthy that the H9A was the only flying boat that went into production by a major nation that was designed specifically as a trainer. From May–June 1942, the Aichi H9A was employed in a variety of second-line roles, including anti-submarine missions along the Japanese coasts, transport, paratroop training and liaison. Thirty one total examples were built.
     

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  14. Gnomey

    Gnomey World Travelling Doctor
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  15. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    #15 gekho, Aug 2, 2011
    Last edited: Aug 2, 2011
    When in mid-1935 Kawasaki, Mitsubishi and Nakajima were instructed by the Imperial Japanese Army to build competitive prototypes of advanced fighter aircraft, Nakajima responded with a single-seat monoplane fighter derived from the company's Type P.E., which it had started to develop as a private venture. Service trials proved, the Kawasaki Ki-28 to be fastest of the three contenders, but the Nakajima Ki- 27 was by far the most manoeuvrable and, on that basis, 10 pre-production examples were ordered for further service evaluation. Following further testing m late 1937 the type was ordered into production as the Army Type 97 Fighter Model A (Nakajima Ki-27a). Late production aircraft which introduced some refinements, including a further improved cockpit canopy, had the designation Ki-27b.

    Nakajima could not have guessed that 3,399 aircraft would be built, by Nakajima (2,020) and Mansyu (1,379), before production came to a halt at the end of 1942, but the type's entry into service over northern China in March 1938 gave an immediate appreciation of its capability, the Ki-27s becoming masters of the airspace until confronted later by the faster Soviet Polikarpov I-16 fighters. At the beginning of the Pacific war the Ki-27s took part in the invasion of Burma, Malaya, the Netherlands East Indies and the Philippines. Allocated the Allied codename 'Nate' (initially 'Abdul' in the China- Burma-India theatre), the Ki-27 had considerable success against the Allies in the initial stages before more modern fighters became available. When this occurred they were transferred for air defence of the home islands, remaining deployed in this capacity until 1943 when they became used increasingly as advanced trainers. As with many Japanese aircraft, their final use was in a kamikaze role.
     

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  16. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    #16 gekho, Aug 2, 2011
    Last edited: Aug 2, 2011
    In 1935, the Imperial Japanese Army held a competition between Nakajima, Mitsubishi, and Kawasaki to design a low-wing monoplane to replace the Kawasaki Ki-10 (Army Type 95 Fighter) biplane. The new fighter was to have also a better performance than the experimental Mitsubishi Ki-18. The results were the Nakajima Ki-27, the Kawasaki Ki-28, and the Mitsubishi Ki-33 (a modification of the Mitsubishi A5M carrier-based fighter). The Nakajima design was based on its earlier Ki-11 monoplane fighter which lost to the Ki-10 in the Type 95 Fighter competition. When the follow-up Nakajima Ki-12 proposal with a liquid-cooled engine and retractable landing gear was deemed too complex by the Japanese officials, the Ki-27 was designed by Koyama Yasushi to have an air-cooled radial engine and fixed landing gear. The aircraft had the Nakajima trademark wing with a straight leading edge and tapered trailing edge which would reappear again on the Ki-43, Ki-44, and Ki-84.

    The Ki-27 made its first flight on 15 October 1936. Although it had a slower top speed and worse climb performance than its competitors, the Army chose the Nakajima design for its outstanding turning ability granted by its remarkably low wing loading. The Army ordered 10 pre-production samples (Ki-27a) for further testing, which featured an enclosed cockpit with sliding canopy and larger wings. The type was officially accepted into service in 1937 as the Army Type 97 Fighter. In addition to Nakajima, the Ki-27 was also manufactured by Tachikawa Aircraft Company Ltd and Manshukoku Hikoki Seizo KK, with a total of 3,368 built before production ended in 1942.
     

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  17. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    The Ki-27 was the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force's main fighter until the start of World War II. When placed into combat service over northern China in March 1938, the Ki-27 enjoyed air superiority until the introduction of the faster Soviet-built Polikarpov I-16 fighters by the Chinese. In the 1939 Battle of Khalkhin Gol against the USSR in Mongolia, the Ki-27 faced both Polikarpov I-15 biplane and the I-16 monoplane fighters. In the initial phase of the conflict, its performance was a match for the early I-16 models it faced, and considerably superior to the I-15 biplane. With clearly better trained and experienced Ki-27 pilots, the IJAAF gained aerial superiority. The deficiencies of the Ki-27 included a lack of armor protection for the pilot, absence of self-sealing or fire suppression in the fuel tanks and inadequate armament of two 7.7 mm (.303 in) machine guns. Despite these faults, whenever Ki-27s managed to scatter an enemy formation and engage in dogfights, the Soviets had little chance of escaping unscathed.

    Later the Soviet Air Force started to receive improved and new types including an improved I-16. The faster, more heavily armed, armored and more robust I-16 proved to be superior to the Ki-27. The new I-16 also allowed Soviet pilots to routinely escape from the Ki-27 in a dive. The VVS started to use new combat tactics consisting of flying in large tightly knit formations, attacking with altitude and/or speed advantage, and hit-and-run (high-energy) tactics. Consequently, as Japanese pilots began to be exhausted by the strain of constant combat, losses soon became heavy, and as a result, in spite of the Ki-27's excellent maneuverability and early performance, the Japanese claim of 1,252 downed enemy aircraft (six times the official Soviet losses number and three times as high as the actual number of committed Soviet aircraft in total) is clearly unrealistic. Top scoring pilot of the incident and top scoring IJAAF pilot on the Ki-27 and overall World War II IJAAF ace was Warrant Officer Hiromichi Shinohara, who claimed 58 Soviet planes (including a IJAAF record of 11 in one day) whilst flying Ki-27s, only to be shot down himself by a number of I-16s on 27 August 1939.

    The preference of Japanese fighter pilots of the Ki-27's high rate of turn caused the Army to focus almost exclusively on maneuverability, a decision which came back to haunt them later as it handicapped the development of faster and more heavily-armed fighters. The Ki-27 served until the beginning of World War II in the Pacific, escorting bombers attacking Malaya, Singapore, Netherlands East Indies, Burma and the Philippines (where it initially fared poorly against the Brewster Buffalo). The type also saw extensive action against the American Volunteer Group in the early months of the war. Soon outclassed by the American Curtiss P-40s, the Ki-27 was replaced in front line service by the Nakajima Ki-43, with surviving examples continued to serve as a trainer. The Ki-27 was also exported for use with Manchukuo and Thai armed forces, seeing combat with both. In Thai service, Ki-27s reportedly damaged two P-51 Mustangs and shot down one P-38 Lightning. Near the end of World War II, a few Ki-27s were equipped with up to 500 kg (1,100 lb) of explosives for a kamikaze role.
     

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  18. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    An Imperial Japanese Navy specification of 1934 for a single-seat fighter with a maximum speed of 350km/h then seemed an almost unattainable target. However, Mitsubishi's Ka-14 prototype designed to this requirement, and flown for the first time on 4 February 1935, demonstrated a top speed of 450km/h in early trials. Unfortunately it had some aerodynamic shortcomings, and the inverted gull-wing of.this aircraft was replaced by a conventional low-set monoplane wing in the second prototype which, with a 436kW Nakajima Kotobuki 2-KAI-1 radial engine, was ordered into production as the Navy Type 96 Carrier Fighter Model 1 (Mitsubishi A5M1). The generally similar A5N2a which followed, powered by the 455kW Kotobuki 2-KAI-3 engine, and the A5M2b with the 477kW Kotobuki 3 engine, were regarded as the Japanese navy's most important fighter aircraft during the Sino-Japanese War. Two experimental A5M3 aircraft were flown with the Hispano-Suiza 12Xcrs engine, but the final and major production version was the A5M4, built also as the A5M4-K tandem two-seat trainer. All versions of the A5M were allocated the Allied codename 'Claude', and when production ended a total of 788 had been built by Mitsubishi, including prototypes; a further 303 were built by Watanabe (39) and the Omura Naval Air Arsenal (264). The Japanese army had also shown interest in the A5M, resulting in the evaluation of a Ki-18 prototype generally similar to the Ka-14, but although fast this was considered to be lacking in manoeuvrability. Mitsubishi produced two re-engined and improved Ki-33 prototypes but they, too, were considered insufficiently manoeuvrable and no army production contract resulted. At the beginning of the Pacific war the A5M4 was in first-line use, but its performance was found inadequate to confront Allied fighters and by the summer of 1942 all had been transferred to second-line duties, many surviving A5M4 and A5M4-Ks being used in kamikaze attacks in the closing months of the war.
     

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  19. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    The Kyushu K11W was designed by Watanabe to meet an Imperial Japanese Navy requirement for a crew trainer. A mid-wing cantilever monoplane with retractable tailwheel landing gear, the K11W accommodated a pilot and radio operator/gunner in a canopied cockpit above the wing, with the instructor, bomb-aimer and navigator in acabin below the wing. Power was provided by a 384kW Hitachi GK2B Amakaze 21 radial engine. First flown in prototype form during November 1942, the K11W was soon ordered into production as the Navy Operations Trainer Shiragiku (white chrysanthemum), these aircraft having the company designation K11W1. Almost 800 were built by Kyushu from 1943 to 1945, being used extensively by the navy. In the closing stages of the Pacific war many K11W1s were used in kamikaze attacks. In addition to this standard version, a small number were built of all-wooden construction under the designation K11W2 and equipped for use in ASW and transport roles. The K11W1 spanned 14.98m, had a maximum take-off weight of 2640kg and had a maximum speed of 230km/h. The same basic design was used for a dedicated anti-submarine aircraft, the Kyushu Q3W1 Nankai (south sea), which reached only prototype form.
     

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  20. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    Designed as a more advanced, specifically designed seaplane fighter. The first N1K1 prototype took off on its first flight on May 6, 1942. Service trials aircraft were delivered to the Japanese Navy starting in August of 1942. Early production aircraft were powered by 1460 hp MK4C Kasei 13 engines, but later production aircraft were powered by 1530 hp MK4E Kasei 15 engines which differed only in minor details. The Kyofu entered service with the Japanese Navy in July of 1943. Production was slow in gearing up and by December of 1943, it had reached only 15 aircraft per month. By the time that the Kyofu entered service, Japan had been thrown back onto the defensive, and the Kyofu was never to serve in the offensive fighter role for which it had been designed. Instead, the the N1K1 was assigned as an interceptor based at Balikpapan in Borneo, a role for which it had never been intended. Even though the Kyofu was a rugged and efficient floatplane, it was no match for the single-seat Allied fighters. Production was terminated in March of 1944 after the delivery of only 89 production aircraft. Later in the war, one Kyofu unit was assigned as an interceptor with the Otsu Kōkūtai operating from the inland Lake Biwa on the Japanese home island of Honshu.
     

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