Netherlands Air Force

Discussion in 'Aircraft Pictures' started by gekho, Feb 16, 2011.

  1. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    After the end of World War I the Dutch government cut the defence budget and the Army Aviation Group was almost dissolved. As political tensions in Europe increased during the late 1930s the government tried to rebuild the armed forces again in 1938 but there were many problems, not least the shortage of pilot instructors, navigators and pilots to fly the new multiple engine aircraft. Lack of standardisation and resulting maintenance issues added to the complexity of the rebuilding task.

    As war loomed, in July 1939 the Army Aviation Group was renamed the Army Aviation Brigade (Luchtvaartbrigade). In August 1939, the Netherlands government mobilised its armed forces, but due to limited budgets the Army Aviation Brigade operated only 176 combat aircraft of several types; Fokker T.V type bombers (16), Fokker D.XXI single-engine fighters (36), Fokker G.I twin-engine fighters (35), Fokker D.XVII single engine fighters (7), Douglas DB-8A-3N light bombers (17), Fokker C.X light bombers (20), Fokker C.V reconnaissance aircraft (33) and Koolhoven FK-51 artillery observer aircraft (20). In May 1940, Germany invaded the Netherlands. Within five days the Dutch Army Aviation Brigade was taken out by the German Luftwaffe. All of the Brigade's bombers, along with 30 D.XXI and 17 G.I fighters were shot down; two D.XXI and eight G.I were destroyed on the ground. Two G.I were captured by German forces, one of which was later flown to England by a Fokker pilot. The Douglas bombehrs were used as fighters because no suitable bombs were available, yet these aircraft were not suited for this role and eight were shot down and three destroyed on the ground in the first hours of the conflict.

    In spite of their numerical inferiority, the Dutch armed forces did enjoy success against the Luftwaffe, having 350 Luftwaffe aircraft destroyed. While many were lost to anti-aircraft fire and crashes at improvised landing fields in the Netherlands, the Aviation Brigade did enjoy successes. The cost was high - almost 95% of the Dutch pilots lost. In recognition of their actions Queen Wilhelmina granted the highest Dutch military decoration, the Militaire Willemsorde (MWO), to the Army Aviation Brigade collectively. Some aircrews escaped to England and on June 1, 1940, 320 Squadron and 321 Squadron were established there under RAF operational command. Due to a shortage of personnel, 321 Squadron was absorbed by 320 Sqn in January 1941. Although their personnel were predominantly from the Navy Air Service, Army Aviation aircrew also served with 320 Sqn until the end of the war. In 1941, the Royal Netherlands Military Flying School was re-established, in the United States at Jackson Field (also known as Hawkins Field), Jackson, Mississippi, operating lend-lease aircraft and training all military aircrew for the Netherlands.

    The separate Militaire Luchtvaart van het Koninklijk Nederlands-Indisch Leger (ML-KNIL; Royal Netherlands East Indies Army Military Air Service) continued in the Netherlands East Indies (NEI), until its occupation by Japan in 1942. Some personnel escaped to Australia and Ceylon. 321 Squadron was re-formed in Ceylon, in March 1942, from Dutch aviators. In 1942, 18 (NEI) Squadron, a joint Dutch-Australian unit was established, in Canberra, equipped with B-25 Mitchell bombers. It saw action in the New Guinea campaign and over the Dutch East Indies. In 1943, 120 (NEI) Squadron was established. Equipped with Kittyhawk fighters, it flew many missions under Australian command, including the recapturing of Dutch New Guinea. In June 1943, a Dutch fighter squadron was established in England. 322 (Dutch) Squadron, equipped with the Supermarine Spitfire, saw action as part of the RAF. 322 Sqn aircraft featured the British RAF roundels as well as the Dutch orange triangle. 322 Sqn was successfully deployed against incoming V-1 flying bombs. From mid-1944, during the invasion of Normandy, it executed ground attack missions over France and Belgium. In July 1944, the Directorate of Netherlands Airpower was established in London.
     
  2. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    The Militaire Luchtvaart van het Koninklijk Nederlands-Indisch Leger ("Military Air Service of the Royal Netherlands East Indian Army", ML-KNIL) had ordered 144 Brewster B-339C and 339D models, the former with rebuilt Wright G-105 engines supplied by the Dutch and the latter with new 1,200 hp (895 kW) Wright R-1820-40 engines Brewster purchased from Wright. At the outbreak of war, only 71 had arrived in the Dutch East Indies, and not all were in service. A small number served briefly at Singapore before being withdrawn for the defense of Java.

    As the Brewster B-339 aircraft used by the ML-KNIL were lighter than the modified B-339E Brewster Mark Is used by British, Australian, and New Zealand air forces, they were able at times to successfully engage the Japanese Army Ki-43 "Oscar", although both the "Oscar" and the Japanese Navy's A6M Zero still out-climbed and out-turned the B-339 at combat altitudes (the Zero was faster as well). Apart from their role as fighters, the Brewsters were also used as dive bombers against Japanese troopships. Though reinforced by British Commonwealth Brewster Mk I (B-339E) aircraft retreating from Malaya, the Dutch squadrons faced superior numbers in the air, and were too few in number to stem the advance of Japanese ground forces.

    In a major engagement above Semplak on 19 February 1942, eight Dutch Brewster fighters intercepted a formation of about 35 Japanese bombers with an escort of about 20 Zeros. The Brewster pilots destroyed 11 Japanese aircraft and lost four Brewsters; two Dutch pilots died. The Brewsters flew their last sortie on 7 March. Altogether, 17 ML-KNIL pilots were killed, and 30 aircraft shot down; 15 were destroyed on the ground, and several were lost to misadventure. Dutch pilots claimed 55 enemy aircraft destroyed. Two Dutch pilots, Jacob van Helsdingen and August Deibel, scored highest with the Buffalo with three victories each. Following the surrender of the Netherlands East Indies on 8 March 1942, 17 ML-KNIL Buffalos were transferred to the USAAF and RAAF in Australia.
     

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  3. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    Several Buffalos were captured by japanese and tested at Tachikawa. The IJAAF captured many more than four Brewster Buffaloes after the fall of the NEI! Add to these the RAF and RAAF Buffaloes captured in Malaya and the IJAAF could have fielded an entire Hiko Sentai. Most Buffs went to the GiKen at Tachikawa and Singapore facilities for testing and training purposes.
     

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  4. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    #4 gekho, Feb 16, 2011
    Last edited: Feb 16, 2011
    The CW-21 Demon was a lightweight fighter based on the CW-19R general-purpose monoplane. It was intended primarily for export, with 32 being ordered by China in 1939, and 24 improved versions being ordered by the Netherlands East Indies in 1940. Being inadequately armed and with no worthwhile protection for the pilot, the Demons were fair game for the Japanese fighters they opposed. Three of the improved Demons (the CW-21B) were sent to the American Volunteer Group in China (the "Flying Tigers"), but all three were lost on the ferry flight from Rangoon to Kunming, when the entire group crashed into a mountain during bad weather.

    In 1940, The Netherlands ordered 24 examples of a modified version designated the CW-21B (together with a number of two-seat Model 23s), for the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army Military Aviation (Militaire Luchtvaart van het Koninklijk Nederlands-Indisch Leger; ML-KNIL). The modifications consisted of inward retracting landing gear, a semi-retractable tail wheel, two each 0.3 and 0.5 inch (7.62 and 12.7 mm) machine guns, and a slightly large fuel tank. These changes gained an eight mph (13 km/h) speed increase at sea level. Deliveries started in June 1940, but only 17 had been received by Vliegtuigroep IV, Afdeling 2 (No. 2 Squadron, Air Group IV; 2-VLG IV), when war with Japan began on December 8 1941. With its rudimentary pilot protection, lack of self-sealing fuel tanks and light construction, the CW-21B was not unlike the opposing Japanese planes. It had better firepower than the Nakajima Ki-43 "Oscar", but worse than the cannon-armed Mitsubishi Zero. Its climb rate was far better than either. Squadron VLG IV claimed four aerial victories during the Netherlands East Indies campaign but the ML-KNIL was overwhelmed by the sheer number of Japanese adversaries.
     

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  5. Wildcat

    Wildcat Well-Known Member

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    Good stuff Gekho!
     
  6. Gnomey

    Gnomey World Travelling Doctor
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    Good stuff! I'm sure Marcel will like/contribute to this thread :)
     
  7. PatCartier

    PatCartier Member

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    We can see several of these Buff' in Kato Hayabusa Sentotai (an amazing movie, 1944) when they're fighting against ki43.
     
  8. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    The Dornier Do 24 is a 1930s German three-engine flying boat designed by the Dornier Flugzeugwerke for maritime patrol and search-and-rescue. According to Dornier records, some 12,000 people were rescued by Do 24s during its flying career. A total of 279 were built between several factories from 1937-1945. The Dornier Do 24 was designed to meet a Dutch navy requirement for a replacement of the Dornier Wals being used in the Dutch East Indies. It was an all-metal monoplane with a broad-beamed hull and stabilising sponsons. The aircraft was powered by three wing-mounted radial engines. The first two aircraft built were fitted with 447 kW (600 hp) Junkers Jumo 205C diesel engines. The next two had 652 kW (875 hp) Wright R-1820-F52 Cyclones, this was to meet a Dutch requirement to use the same engines as the Martin 139. The third aircraft (with Cyclone engines) was the first to fly on 3 July 1937. Six Dutch aircraft (designated Do 24K-1) were built in Germany, followed by a further aircraft built under licence by Aviolanda in the Netherlands (designated Do 24K-2).

    Only 25 aircraft had been built on the Aviolanda assembly line before the German occupation. The Luftwaffe were interested in the completed and partially completed aircraft. The Dutch production line continued to produce aircraft under German control. 11 airframes were completed with Dutch-bought Wright Cyclone engines, but later models used the BMW Bramo 323R-2. A further 159 Do 24s were built in Holland during the occupation, most under the designation Do 24T-1. Another production line for the Do 24 was established in Sartrouville, France, during the German occupation. This line was operated by SNCA and was able to produce another 48 Do 24s. After the liberation, this facility produced a further 40 Do 24s, which served in the French Navy until 1952.

    37 Dutch- and German-built Do 24s had been sent to the East Indies by the time of the German occupation of the Netherlands in June 1940. Until the outbreak of war, these aircraft would have flown the tri-color Roundel. Later, to avoid confusion with British or French roundels, Dutch aircraft flew a black-bordered orange triangle insignia. After the Japanese invasion, six surviving Do 24s were transferred to the Royal Australian Air Force in February 1942. They served in RAAF through most of 1944 as transports in New Guinea, making the Do 24 one of the few aircraft serving operationally on both sides during World War II. During the war, a German Do 24 made a forced landing in neutral Sweden, was impounded and paid for, and remained in Swedish service until 1952.
     

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  9. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    In October 1939, the Dutch East Indies government ordered 24 Hawk 75A-7s, powered by 1,200 hp (895 kW) Cyclones. They had four 0.303 in (7.7 mm) machine guns (two in the nose and one in each wing) and could carry two 100 lb (45 kg) bombs. The fighters were shipped in 1940 (and were almost rerouted to the Netherlands, when Germany invaded) and were used extensively leading up to the Japanese attack. However, by that time the aircraft had flown so many hours, the engines were worn out. These Dutch Hawks formed 1-VlG IV, or Vliegtuiggroep IV, 1e afdeling (1st Squadron, Airgroup IV) of the ML-KNIL and some with 1-VlG V. They saw action over Malacca, Sumatra and Java, successfully bombing a railroad and intercepting bombers. They also participated in the extensive dogfights over Surabaya, where US, RAF and ML-KNIL aircraft together fought Japanese bombers and fighters.
     

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  10. Gnomey

    Gnomey World Travelling Doctor
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    Nice shots!
     
  11. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    The Koolhoven F.K.51 was the winning design in a 1935 Dutch government contest for a new trainer. Designed by Frederick Koolhoven the prototype biplane trainer first flew on 25 May 1935. The aircraft was an equal-span biplane designed to use a variety of engines between 250hp (186kW) and 500hp (373kW). It was a two-seater and had a tailwheel undercarriage. The Royal Dutch air force (LVA) ordered 25 aircraft in 1936 and 1937, powered by a 270hp (201kW) Armstrong Siddeley Cheetah V radial engine. A further 29 aircraft were later bought with 350hp (261kW) Armstrong Siddeley Cheetah IX engine. The Dutch Naval Aviation Service ordered 29 aircraft each powered by a 450hp (335kW) Pratt Whitney radials. The Royal Dutch East Indies Army bought 38 aircraft between 1936 and 1938 each powered by a 420hp (313kW) Wright Whirlwind. The Spanish Republican government ordered 28 F.K.51s, 11 with 400hp (298kW) Armstrong Siddeley Jaguar IVa radials and 17 aircraft (designated F.K.51bis) each powered by a 450hp (335kW) Wright Whirlwind R-975E radials. Production totalled at least 142 aircraft. Twenty-four hulls of the F.K.51 where assambled at Aviolanda.
     

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  12. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    While the majority of F.K.51s were employed as elementary trainers within the Netherlands or in reconnaissance roles by the Royal Dutch Air Force in the Dutch East Indies, twenty-eight were clandestinely sold to the Republican government during the Spanish Civil War, all despite a Dutch embargo on the sale of arms to either side of that conflict. Some of those arriving in Spain were used as light bombers by the Republicans in the Cantabrian region of Spain. The F.K.51s were in active use in Royal Dutch Flight Schools during the first months of World War II in the training of young Dutch pilots, but with the German invasion of the Netherlands in May 1940, the F.K.51s were deemed obsolete and most never took to the air being too slow and vulnerable. The majority of F.K.51s were destroyed on the ground by attacking Luftwaffe aircraft.
     

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  13. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    More pics
     

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  14. Sydhuey

    Sydhuey Member

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    The Dornier Do-24's operated by the RAAF were X-5, X-7, X-8, X-9, X-10 and X-24, withdrawn from use late 1944 for lack of spares.
     
  15. Sydhuey

    Sydhuey Member

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    #15 Sydhuey, Feb 18, 2011
    Last edited: Feb 18, 2011
    gekho, do you have any pictures of the Douglas Bostons that made it to Java with the Dutch triangle? I have only seen the photos doctored by Douglas with orange triangles added. (I know they were going to Dutch navy )
     
  16. AARP Hurricane

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    Fokker T-2
     

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  17. AARP Hurricane

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    Fokker G-1 served more time with the Luftwaffe in Fliegerschulen
     

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  18. AARP Hurricane

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    The Iconic Fokker D XXI
     

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  19. Sydhuey

    Sydhuey Member

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    #19 Sydhuey, Feb 19, 2011
    Last edited: Feb 19, 2011
    As a side note to Dutch Military aircraft, attached photos are of the actual left and right aft fuselage skins from the restored RAAF DB-7B Boston A28-8 DU-J (RAF serial AL907) this was one of the 30 odd Bostons diverted from an RAF (originaly French) order to the NEI Navy as interim while they waited for there 48 DB-7C's to be build (all eventualy went to Russia) , AL904 was one of the Bostons that actually made it to Java captured by the Japanese and was flown in Singapore and japan it was recaptured in Japan at the end of the war.
    The marking were originaly the standard RAF Yellow,Blue,White and Red, when a/c diverted to NEI Navy roundel painted out and Dutch orange triangle with black border applied when 22 of the Bostons arrived in Australia and went into RAAF service the Yellow,Blue,White and Red roundel was reapplied , the yellow and Red were painted out before the a/c went into combat to leave the standard RAAF Blue and White roundel, on close inspection some of the paint was 6 or 7 layers thick in the roundel area on the aircraft, amazing its lasted 70 years,
    First picture is the R/H skin as removed from the a/c second picture is a cardboard triangle for referance to allow easier recognition of were the triangle went on the a/c (triangle should have black border on it but I had no black paint) second pair of pictures are of the L/H skins
     

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  20. Snautzer01

    Snautzer01 Well-Known Member

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    must be Fokker TV
     
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