Captured Aircrafts: EEUU

Discussion in 'Aircraft Pictures' started by gekho, Mar 3, 2012.

  1. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    #1 gekho, Mar 3, 2012
    Last edited: Mar 17, 2013
    Messerschmitt Me-262 Schwalbe

    After the end of the war, the Me 262 and other advanced German technologies were quickly swept up by the Americans (as part of the USAAF's Operation Lusty), British, and Soviets. Many Me 262s were found in readily-repairable condition and were confiscated. Both the Soviets and Americans desired the technology to serve as a basis for their own jet fighters. During testing, the Me 262 was found to have advantages over the early models of the Gloster Meteor. It was faster, had better cockpit visibility to the sides and rear (mostly due to the canopy frame and the discoloration caused by the plastics used in the Meteor's construction), and was a superior gun platform, as the early Meteors had a tendency to snake at high speed and exhibited "weak" aileron response.The Me 262 did have a shorter combat range than the Meteor.

    The USAAF compared the P-80 Shooting Star and Me 262 concluding, "Despite a difference in gross weight of nearly 2,000 lb (900 kg), the Me 262 was superior to the P-80 in acceleration, speed and approximately the same in climb performance. The Me 262 apparently has a higher critical Mach number, from a drag standpoint, than any current Army Air Force fighter." The Army Air Force also tested an example of the Me 262A-1a/U3 (US flight evaluation serial FE-4012), an unarmed photo reconnaissance version, which was fitted with a fighter nose and given an overall smooth finish. It was used for performance comparisons against the P-80. During testing between May and August 1946, the aircraft completed eight flights, lasting four hours and 40 minutes. Testing was discontinued after four engine changes were required during the course of the tests, culminating in two single-engine landings. These aircraft were extensively studied, aiding development of early U.S. and Soviet jet fighters. The F-86, designed by engineer Edgar Schmued, used a slat design based on the Me 262's.
     

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  2. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    #2 gekho, Mar 3, 2012
    Last edited: Mar 5, 2012
    It has long been believed that the first example of Japan’s vaunted Mitsubishi A6M2 Type Zero carrier fighter to be captured by the Allies in World War II was the one salvaged the United States Navy from an Aleutian island in July of 1942. However, interviews with surviving witnesses and the discovery of pertinent documents in the national and military archives of the United States, Japan, and the Peoples Republic of China have confirmed that the recovery of the very first intact Zero fighter occurred prior to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor! The following account traces the events leading to the acquisition of the first Japanese Zero by the Chinese government on 26 November 1941 and its subsequent history.

    For more information: Untitled Document Akutan Zero - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
     

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  3. dorkbert

    dorkbert New Member

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    I think I read somewhere that the local Chinese population stripped the tires to make shoe soles, and they had to hunt around for the closest approximate fit to get the aircraft flying again.
     
  4. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    #4 gekho, Mar 3, 2012
    Last edited: Mar 17, 2013
    January 1, 1945 base 404 Fighter Group 508 Squadron at St. Trond airfield was attacked in Operation Bodenplatte to destroy allied aircraft on the ground. Fw-190A-8 Corporal Walter Wagner out of 5 Squadron in Group II of the 4th Fighter Aviation Regiment (Gefreiter Walter Wagner, 5. II/JG4) was slightly damaged by Allied antiaircraft fire and was forced to land at the airport of Saint-Trond. In fact, Wagner made a mistake in choosing targets and attacked Saint-Trond, thinking that it LeCulot. Wagner Group suffered heavy losses on this day - 17 pilots were killed, disappeared or were injured, six were captured. The aircraft was rebuilt and Wagner, to distinguish it from the German machine was completely painted in bright red-orange color. Also suffered a false code of 01/01/45 (date of capture) and an indication of OO (star) L. The new colors of the aircraft did not fly and was left at the airport of Saint Trond after the departure of 404 Fighter Group. The 404th's CO Colonel Leo Moon wrote re this machine;

    " the aircraft was painted red by a crew who had overheard me saying that I had always wanted to own a red airplane ..the OO*L code was placed on it because we had created an 'imaginary' fourth Squadron in the Group, and as in the 508th, we used the first initial of the pilot's name as the last of the three code letters. Since I agreed that we should try and get the 190 into flying condition everyone considered it my aircraft and added the 'L' accordingly..when it was ready I taxied it at all speeds up to near takeoff speed but we had no clearance to fly it from the Anti-Aircraft. After taxiing in I found the tires soaked in hydraulic fluid and they were so deteriorated I felt that they were unsafe..we spent considerable time looking for new tires without success. Then we had to move on and left the Fw 190 at St. Trond. I regret that I wasn't able to get that 190 in the air - I had even learnt the 'offs' and 'ons' of the switch labels in German but I don't feel too bad about not flying it. I did get to fly the Bearcat which I believe was more or less a copy of the 190 -although no-one ever admits it..."
     

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  5. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    #5 gekho, Mar 3, 2012
    Last edited: Mar 3, 2012
    Picture 1.- Fw-190 F9 captured by the USAAF at Herzogenurach (1945)
    Picture 2.- Fw-190s destroyed by retreating German forces at Leina Forest (1945)
    Picture 3.- Fw-190 A8 White-40 abandoned in Lechfeld, June-1945
    Picture 4.- Fw 190 at U.S. base in Europe. This may be the A-4 evaluated by the USAAF.
     
  6. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    #6 gekho, Mar 3, 2012
    Last edited: Mar 5, 2012
    More pics
     

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  7. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    #7 gekho, Mar 4, 2012
    Last edited: Mar 5, 2012
    he Mitsubishi Ki-46 was a twin-engines reconnaissance plane used by the Japanese Imperial Army in World War II. Its Army designation was "Type 100 Command Reconnaissance Aircraft" (百式司令部偵察機); the Allied code name was "Dinah". This aircraft was first used by the Japanese Army in Manchuria and China, where seven units were equipped with it, and also at times by the Japanese Imperial Navy in certain reconnaissance missions over the north coasts of Australia and New Guinea. The Japanese Army used this aircraft for the same type of missions (which were not authorized) over present-day Malaysia, during the months before the Pacific War. Later it was used over Burma, Indochina and Thailand; and in operations over the Indian Ocean area too. In 1944-45, during the last days of the war, it was modified as a high altitude interceptor, with two 20 mm cannons in the nose and one 37 mm cannon in an "upwards-and-forwards" position, almost like the Luftwaffe's Schrage Musik night fighter cannon emplacements, for fighting against the USAAF B-29 over the metropolitan Japanese islands.The United States captured some examples during conflict for evaluations.
     

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  8. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    In 1937, Messerschmitt began Projekt P. 1064, a study for a long-range reconnaissance aircraft, and took basic design of the Bf 110 twin-engine heavy fighter as its basis. The P. 1064 had a long, slim fuselage with two wing-mounted engines. Planned from the outset as a record-breaking aircraft, after becoming convinced that the aircraft was capable of taking the world long-distance flight record, the Air Ministry approved the project and gave it the designation of 8-261.

    The intended goal of the project was for a completed example of the aircraft to carry the Olympic Flame from Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany (site of the 1936 Winter Olympics) to Tokyo, Japan for the 1940 Summer Olympics in what would be a record-breaking nonstop flight (5870mi / 9445km). The plan captured the imagination of Adolf Hitler at an early stage in its design and in tribute, the aircraft carried the unofficial name: Adolfine.

    The Me 261 incorporated a number of features which were highly advanced for its day. The single-spar all-metal wing was designed to serve as a fuel tank and its depth at the wing root was only slightly less than the height of the fuselage. The fuselage itself was of virtually rectangular section, with space for five crew members, consisting of two pilots seated side-by-side with the radio operator directly behind in the front compartment, while a navigator and a flight engineer were housed in the rear fuselage under a stepped, glazed station.
     

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  9. A4K

    A4K Well-Known Member

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    Great stuff mate, thanks for posting!
     
  10. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    Production totalled 193 E16A1 production aircraft by Aichi Kokuki KK at Eitoku and 59 E16A1 production aircraft by Nipon Hikoki KK at Tomioka. Unfortunately for the navy, by the time the E16A1 entered service the Allies had gained air superiority and in consequence these aircraft, allocated the Allied codename 'Paul', suffered very heavy losses during 1944. The majority which survived were used for Kamikaze operations in the Okinawa area.
     

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  11. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    The Dornier Do 335 Pfeil ("Arrow") was a World War II heavy fighter built by the Dornier company. The two-seater trainer version was also called Ameisenbär ("anteater"). The Pfeil's performance was much better than other twin-engine designs due to its unique "push-pull" layout and the much lower drag of the in-line alignment of the two engines. The Luftwaffe was desperate to get the design into operational use, but delays in engine deliveries meant only a handful were delivered before the war ended.

    When the US Army overran the Oberpfaffenhofen factory in late April 1945, only 11 Do 335A-1 single seat fighter-bombers and two Do 335A-12 conversion trainers had been completed. A further nine A-1′s, four A-4′s and two A-12′s were in final assembly, and components and assemblies for nearly 70 more had been completed. Heinkel at Vienna had been unable to build any Do 335A-6 night fighters. A number of planned developments of the Do 335 were on the drawing board when the war ended, including several big-winged high altitude fighter versions, the Do 535 with a jet rear engine, the Do 635 (later Ju 8-635) long range reconnaissance version which featured twin fuselages linked by a common wing centre section, and the P.256 twin jet fighter. As part of Operation Seahorse, two of the surviving A-0 single seaters were put aboard the US aircraft carrier ‘Reaper’ and shipped back to the USA, for detailed evaluation by the US Navy and USAAF. An airworthy A-12 two seater was flown to Britain and flight tested at RAE Farnborough, but a companion A-1 force-landed in France on its delivery flight and was abandoned. Two of the B-series prototypes were also evaluated by the CEV in France.

    Source: Aeroflight » Dornier Do 335
     

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  12. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    The Bachem Ba 349 Natter (English: Viper, Adder) was a World War II German point-defence rocket powered interceptor, which was to be used in a very similar way to a manned surface-to-air missile. After vertical take-off, which eliminated the need for airfields, the majority of the flight to the Allied bombers was to be controlled by an autopilot. The primary mission of the relatively untrained pilot, perhaps better called a gunner, was to aim the aircraft at its target bomber and fire its armament of rockets. The pilot and the fuselage containing the rocket motor would then land under separate parachutes, while the nose section was disposable. The only manned vertical take-off flight on 1 March 1945 ended in the death of the test pilot Lothar Sieber.

    French forces were in place in Waldsee by 25 April 1945 and presumably took control of the Bachem-Werk. Shortly before the French troops arrived, a group of Bachem-Werk personnel set out for Austria with five A1 Natters on trailers. At Bad Wörishofen, the group waited for another group retreating from Nabern unter Teck with one completed Natter. Both groups then set out for the Austrian Alps. One group with two Natters ended up at the junction of the Inn River and a tributary, the Oetztaler Ache, at Camp Schlatt. The other group went to St. Leonhard in the beautiful Pitztal with four aircraft. US troops captured the first group at Camp Schlatt around 4 May and the second group on the following day.
     

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  13. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    The Junkers Ju 88 was a World War II German Luftwaffe twin-engine, multi-role aircraft. Designed by Hugo Junkers' company through the services of two American aviation engineers in the mid-1930s, it suffered from a number of technical problems during the later stages of its development and early operational roles, but became one of the most versatile combat aircraft of the war. Affectionately known as "The Maid of all Work" (a feminine version of "jack of all trades"), the Ju 88 proved to be suited to almost any role. Like a number of other Luftwaffe bombers, it was used successfully as a bomber, dive bomber, night fighter, torpedo bomber, reconnaissance aircraft, heavy fighter, and even as a flying bomb during the closing stages of conflict.
     

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  14. Airframes

    Airframes Benevolens Magister

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    Great pics, and I didn't know about the Me- 261.
     
  15. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    #15 gekho, Mar 6, 2012
    Last edited: Mar 17, 2013
    - N1K1-J George Manufacture Number 5511 Tail 201-53: Built by Kawanishi at Naruo some time between November 12 - 18, 1944 Assigned to the 201st Kōkūtai, with tail code 201-53 painted in yellow. Stationed at Clark Field or maybe at Mabalacat East where the 201st was stationed. Captured at Clark Field on January 30, 1945. Evaluated and flight tested by TAIU-SWPA at Clark Field, assigned tail number S7, but only 7 was applied to the tail. This aircraft was scrapped or otherwise disappeared.
    - N1J1-J George 5638 Captured Tarlac Airfield January 1945
    - N1K1-J Model 11 George Manufacture Number 7102 Tail 341-S23: Built by Kawanishi at Himeji sometime between August 13 to October 16, 1944. Propeller installed on September 15, 1944. Assigned to the 341st Kokutai, Fighter Flying Unit 402, with tail code 341-S23. Captured at Clark Field on January 30, 1945. Allied intelligence TAIC-SWPA repaired this George and applied US markings and tail stripes. Assigned tail code S9. Flying from Clark Field during April 1945, it was tested with the underwing and fusealge mounted guns removed, to resemble the N1K2-J configuration.Afterwards (or postwar) this aircraft was scrapped or otherwise disappeared.
    - N1K1-J George 7287 Captured taken to United States on USS Barnes
    - N1K1-J George 7317 Captured taken to United States on USS Barnes
    - N1K2-J Model 21 George Manufacture Number 5368 Tail 341S-49: Built by Kawanishi in 1944. Captured at Clark Field on January 30, 1945.
    - N1K1-J Model 11 George Manufacture Number ? Tail 341S-6. Built by Kawanishi in 1944. Captured at Clark Field on January 30, 1945.
    - N1K1-J Model 11 George Manufacture Number ? Tail 2-56. Built by Kawanishi. Assigned to the 762nd Kōkūtai, with tail code 2-56 painted in yellow. Stationed at Clark Field. Although the 762nd Kōkūtai was a bomber unit, the 762nd had a hikotai of fighter that were armed with the early Shidens." Painted dark green over natural metal and the flaking of the paint is caused by the lack of primer in the aircraft. Captured at Clark Field on January 30, 1945.

    Source: Pacific Wrecks - N1K1-J Model 11 George Manufacture Number ? Tail 2-56
     

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  16. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    The Tachikawa Ki-77 was a Japanese very long-range experimental transport and communications aircraft of World War II derived from a design commissioned by a newspaper to break the flight distance record set by a rival. It was a low-wing cabin monoplane with twin piston engines and a tailwheel undercarriage. A Ki-77 was still in existence when Japan surrendered and was shipped to the United States aboard the carrier USS Bogue from Yokosuka in December 1945, arriving at Alameda, CA on January 8, 1946 for examination, before being scrapped.
     

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  17. gekho

    gekho Active Member

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    It is perhaps not generally realised that the Luftwaffe did put into service a number of four-engine bomber types. One of the these was the Junkers Ju 290, one of the Luftwaffe’s largest and most formidable aircraft. However the Ju 290 served primarily in the reconnaissance and transport roles, peforming most of its service flying long-range reconnaissance missions with FAGR 5. Formed at Achmer during May 1943, FAGR 5 was established by the Fliegerführer Atlantik on behalf of the Befehlshaber der U-boote as a long range maritime recon group to scout out and locate Allied Atlantic convoys and then shadow them until U-boats could be assembled and close in for the kill. It was intended that the unit would have a complement of some forty Ju 290's - which it never attained. Ju 290s of the unit were equipped with FuG 200 Hohentwiel radar and the Neptun 216, (later 217) rear warning radar to defend against approaching Allied fighters.These Ju 290s were potentially capable of reaching the US - but whether Luftwaffe aircraft did carry out such flights during WWII is doubtful. Nonetheless there was at least one well documented transatlantic flight flown by a Luftwaffe four-engine bomber- albeit post-war. This was the transatlantic ferry performed by ‘Alles Kaputt’, a Junkers Ju 290, which set a transatlantic speed record in the process.

    Ju 290 A-4 (V7) Werk-Nr. 0165 - displaying its KG 200 Verbandskennzeichen A3+HB and equipped with mounting points for ETC 2000 racks for the carriage of FX 1400, Hs 293, and Hs 294 guided missiles - was surrendered to USAAF personnel by 1./ KG 200 Staffelkapitän Hptm. Heinz Braun on 8 May 1945 when he flew the aircraft into München-Riem from Königgrätz in Czechoslovakia with several dozen female Luftwaffe auxiliaries on board. As the only airworthy example of this giant Luftwaffe bomber secured by Colonel Harold E. Watson’s ATI team (Air Technical Intelligence or “Watson’s Whizzers”) it was decided to fly the aircraft back to ATI HQ at Wright Field Ohio. Hptm. Braun, who had flown both a captured B-17 and B-24 with KG 200, agreed to serve as pilot-instructor to the American team and also provided insight into the aircraft’s capabilities and performance and servicing requirements. He would co-pilot the aircraft to Roth near Nuremburg, then on to Belgium and then France where it was prepared for the transatlantic flight. Prior to its first flight under new ownership -and at the request of the Americans- Braun had sought out BMW mechanics from holding camps of German POWs to replace two of the machines’s BMW engines after metal filings had been found in the oil systems – probably the result of wear rather than sabotage. American radio equipment and a radio compass and other instruments were fitted.

    During testing prior to the transatlantic flight another engine change proved necessary and resulted in a flight back to Munich in a C-47 to retrieve a recently manufactured example! However the new BMW engine was too bulky to be loaded onto the American transport and in the end had to be sent to France by road, a journey that took several days, although the engine change itself required barely two hours. By this stage the aircraft was under round-the-clock guard to prevent sabotage. This was not enough to prevent the pilfering of the autopilot control panel. And despite the close attentions of its new crew it was not until the aircraft had arrived in Ohio that a so-called ‘Selbstzerstöranlage’ was located in the wing near a fuel tank – a small explosive device for destroying the aircraft to prevent it falling into the wrong hands!

    The Ju 290 took off for the US from Orly, Paris on 28 July 1945 with Watson at the controls, heading out on the ‘southern’ route for the Azores. In the end the German crew, including pilot Braun, was left behind and did not go to America as some sources claim. According to American calculations at an average speed of 300 km/h and an altitude of 3,000 metres, the Ju 290 possessed an endurance of some 16 to 18 hours and a range of around 4,800 kilometres! This performance was made possible by a 3,800 litre supplementary fuel tank in the fuselage, installed for long-range sorties. Watson’s co-pilot Captain Fred McIntosh wrote an account of the flight published in Sweeting's 'Hitler's Squadron'. The first leg of the journey –some 3,700 km - took nine hours and 10 minutes and due to cloud cover over the island of Santa Maria, required an instrument approach on arriving in the Azores. USAAF Gen. Arnold who was also on the island on his way home from the Potsdam conference was given a tour of the aeroplane. On 30 July the Ju 290 was airborne for the next leg of the journey to Bermuda at its heaviest ever flight weight– but although taking off behind Arnold’s C-54, the Ju 290 arrived in the US some 30 mins ahead of Arnold’s aircraft such was its impressive performance. The final leg of the journey took place on 31 July 1945;

    " ..The weather out of Bermuda was fine but the closer we got to Dayton, Ohio the lower the ceilings and visibility was close to VFR minimums. Watson was the only crew member having experience with low frequency beacons and Adcock ranges, and, happily, in the Dayton area. We eventually touched down on Wright Field on our first approach after a flight of only six hours and thirty minutes. The plane was assigned Foreign Evaluation no. 3400 and German markings were reapplied because of upcoming air shows.." (McIntosh)

    The captured aircraft, with its Hakenkreuze reapplied and displaying the inscription ‘Alles Kaputt’ which had been added in Europe. The Stammkennzeichen PI+PS is over-painted. The aircraft was a frequent performer at air shows at Freeman Field and Wright Field prior to being scrapped in December 1946. The Revell 1/72nd scale Junkers Ju 290 A-7 'Spy version' kit features the 'Alles Kaputt' inscription as a decal.

    Source: FalkeEins - the Luftwaffe blog: How the 'celebrated' Junkers Ju 290 "Alles Kaputt" went to America - Watsons Whizzers, KG 200, Revell Ju 290 A-7 'Spy version'
     

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  18. Gnomey

    Gnomey World Travelling Doctor
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    Interesting stuff!
     
  19. Airframes

    Airframes Benevolens Magister

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    I agree. Like the look of the Japanese kite.
     
  20. A4K

    A4K Well-Known Member

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    Me too Terry.
    Great photos and info here!
     
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